WWW.BOOK.DISLIB.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, dissertations, abstract
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 20 | 21 || 23 | 24 |   ...   | 62 |

«Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The ...»

-- [ Page 22 ] --

For this wide-ranging proposal, experts on each of the identified dimensions will be needed. Their ongoing engagement is essential to the success of the enterprise. Moreover, it is important to solicit help widely within the social sciences disciplines so that decisions are not monopolized by a few (with perhaps quirky judgments). As a convening body, 18 The Utstein Partnership, a group formed in 1999 by the ministers of international development from the Netherlands, Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom to formalize their cooperation is an example of this possible approach applied to a different problem.

The U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre assists donor practitioners to more effectively address corruption challenges by providing a variety of online resources. See http://www.

u.no/about/upartnership.cfm.

 IMPROVING DEMOCRACY ASSISTANCE there are several possibilities, including the professional associations of political science, economics, and sociology (the American Political Science Association, American Economic Association, and American Sociological Association) or a consortium of universities.

CONCLUSIONS

This chapter has reviewed the most widely used indicators that measure “democracy” and arrived at these key findings:

• The concept of democracy cannot at present be defined in an authoritative (nonarbitrary) and operational fashion. It is an inherently multidimensional concept, and there is little consensus over its attributes. Definitions range from minimal—a country must choose its leaders through contested elections—to maximal—a country must have universal suffrage, accountable and limited government, sound and fair justice and extensive protection of human rights and political liberties, and economic and social policies that meet popular needs. Moreover, the definition of democracy is itself a moving target; definitions that would have seemed reasonable at one time (such as describing the United States as a democracy in 1900 despite no suffrage for women and few minorities holding office) are no longer considered reasonable today. To obtain a more reliable and credible method of tracking democratic change to guide USAID DG programming, USAID should foster an effort to develop disaggregated sectoral-level measures of democratic governance. This would likely have to involve numerous parties to attain wide acceptance.

• Existing empirical indicators of democracy are flawed. The flaws extend to problems of definition and aggregation, imprecision, measurement errors, poor data coverage, and a lack of convergent validity. These existing measures are useful to identify whether countries are fully democratic, fully autocratic, or somewhere in between. They are not reliable, however, as a guide for tracking modest improvements or declines in democracy within a country over the period of time in which most DG projects operate.

• While the United States, other donor governments, and international agencies that are making decisions about policy in the areas of health or economic assistance are able to draw on extensive databases that are compiled and updated at substantial cost by government or multilateral agencies mandated to collect such data (e.g., World Bank, World Health Organization, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), no comparable source of data on democracy currently exists.

Data on democracy are instead currently compiled by various individual academics on irregular and shoestring budgets, or by nongovernmental 

MEASURING DEMOCRACY

organizations or commercial publishers, using different definitions and indicators of democracy.

These findings lead the committee to make a recommendation that we believe would significantly improve USAID’s (and others’) ability to track countries’ progress and make the type of strategic assessments that will be most helpful for DG programming.

• USAID and other policymakers should explore making a substantial investment in the systematic collection of democracy indicators at a disaggregated, sectoral level—focused on the components of democracy rather than (or in addition to) the overall concept. If they wish to have access to data on democracy and democratization comparable to that relied on by policymakers and foreign assistance agencies in the areas of public health or trade and finance, a substantial government or multilateral effort to improve, develop, and maintain international data on levels and detailed aspects of democracy would be needed. This should not only involve multiple agencies and actors in efforts to initially develop a widely accepted set of sectoral data on democracy and democratic development but should seek to institutionalize the collection and updating of democracy data for a broad clientele, along the lines of the economic, demographic, and trade data collected by the World Bank, United Nations, and International Monetary Fund.

While creating better measures at the sectoral level to track democratic change is a long-term process, there is no need to wait on such measures to determine the impact of USAID’s DG projects. USAID has already compiled an extensive collection of policy-relevant indicators to track specific changes in government institutions or citizen behavior, such as levels of corruption, levels of participation in local and national decision making, quality of elections, professional level of judges or legislators, or the accountability of the chief executive. Since these are, in fact, the policy-relevant outcomes that are most plausibly affected by Dg projects, the committee recommends that measurement of these factors rather than sectoral-level changes be used to determine whether the projects are having a significant impact in the various elements that compose democratic governance.





–  –  –

Adcock, R., and Collier, D. 2001. Measurement Validity: A Shared Standard for Qualitative and Quantitative Research. American Political Science Reiew 95(3):529-546.

Altman, D., and Pérez-Liñán, A. 2002. Assessing the Quality of Democracy: Freedom, Competitiveness and Participation in Eighteen Latin American Countries. Democratization 9(2):85-100.

Alvarez, M., Cheibub, J.A., Limongi, F., and Przeworski, A. 1996. Classifying Political Regimes. Studies in Comparatie International Deelopment 31(2):3-36.

Arat, Z.F. 1991. Democracy and Human Rights in Deeloping Countries. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Beck, T., Clarke, G., Groff, A., Keefer P., and Walsh, P. 2000. New Tools and New Tests in Comparative Political Economy: The Database of Political Institutions. Policy Research Working Paper 2283. Washington, DC: World Bank, Development Research Group. For further info, see http//www.worldbank.org/research/bios/pkeefer.htm Research Group Web site http//econ.worldbank.org/.

Beetham, D., ed. 1994. Defining and Measuring Democracy. London: Sage.

Berg-Schlosser, D. 2004a. Indicators of Democracy and Good Governance as Measures of the Quality of Democracy in Africa: A Critical Appraisal. Acta Politica 39(3):248-278.

Berg-Schlosser, D. 2004b. The Quality of Democracies in Europe as Measured by Current Indicators of Democratization and Good Governance. Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 20(1):28-55.

Berman, S. 1997. Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic. World Politics 49(3):

401-429.

Bertelsmann Foundation. 2003 Bertelsmann Transformation Index: Towards Democracy and a Market Economy. Gütersloh, Germany: Bertelsmann Foundation.

Boix, C., and Rosato, S. 2001. A Complete Data Set of Political Regimes, 00-. Chicago:

University of Chicago, Department of Political Science.

Bollen, K.A. 1980. Issues in the Comparative Measurement of Political Democracy. American Sociological Reiew 45:370-390.

Bollen, K.A. 1993. Liberal Democracy: Validity and Method Factors in Cross-National Measures. American Journal of Political Science 37(4):1207-1230.

Bollen, K.A., and Paxton, P. 2000. Subjective Measures of Liberal Democracy. Comparatie Political Studies 33(1):58-86.

Bowman, K., Lehoucq, F., and Mahoney, J. 2005. Measuring Political Democracy: Case Expertise, Data Adequacy, and Central America. Comparatie Political Studies 38(8):939-970.

Casper, G., and Tufis, C. 2003. Correlation Versus Interchangeability: The Limited Robustness of Empirical Findings on Democracy Using Highly Correlated Data Sets. Political Analysis 11:196-203.

Coppedge, M. 2007. Presentation to Democracy Indicators for Democracy Assistance. Boston University, January 26.

Coppedge, M. Forthcoming. Approaching Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Coppedge, M., and Reinicke, W.H. 1990. Measuring Polyarchy. Studies in Comparatie International Deelopment 25:51-72.

Dunn, J. 2006. Democracy: A History. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.

Elkins, Z. 2000. Gradations of Democracy? Empirical Tests of Alternative Conceptualizations. American Journal of Political Science 44(2):287-294.

Finkel, S.E., Pérez-Liñán, A., and Seligson, M.A. 2007. The Effects of U.S. Foreign Assistance on Democracy Building, 1990-2003. World Politics 59(3):404-439.

Finkel, S.E., Pérez-Liñán, A., Seligson, M.A., and Tate, C.N. 2008. Deepening Our Understanding of the Effects of U.S. Foreign Assistance on Democracy Building: Final Report.

Available at: http://www.LapopSureys.org.



MEASURING DEMOCRACY

Foweraker, J., and Krznaric, R. 2000. Measuring Liberal Democratic Performance: An Empirical and Conceptual Critique. Political Studies 48(4):759-787.

Freedom House. 2006. Freedom of the Press 00: A Global Surey of Media Independence. New York: Freedom House.

Freedom House. 2007. Methodology, Freedom in the World 00. Freedom House: New York.

Available at: http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=&ana_page=&year =00. Accessed on September 5, 2007.

Gasiorowski, M.J. 1996. An Overview of the Political Regime Change Dataset. Comparatie Political Studies 29(4):469-483.

Gleditsch, K.S., and Ward, M.D. 1997. Double Take: A Re-examination of Democracy and Autocracy in Modern Polities. Journal of Conflict Resolution 41:361-383.

Hadenius, A. 1992. Democracy and Deelopment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hadenius, A., and Teorell, J. 2005. Assessing Alternative Indices of Democracy. Committee on Concepts and Methods Working Paper Series. Mexico City: Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas (CIDE).

Hewitt de Alcantara, C. 1998. Uses and Abuses of the Concept of Governance. International Social Science Journal 11(155):105-113.

Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., and Mastruzzi, M. 2006. Goernance Matters V: Goernance Indicators for -00. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Kekic, L. 2007. The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Index of Democracy. Available at: http:// www.economist.com/media/pdf/DEMOCRACY_INDEX_00_.pdf. Accessed on February 23, 2008.

Knack, S., and Manning, N. 2000. Why Is It So Difficult to Agree on Goernance Indicators?

Washington, DC: World Bank.

Kurtz, M.J., and Schrank, A. 2007. Growth and Governance: Models, Measures, and Mechanisms. Journal of Politics 69:2.

Landman, T. 2003. Map-Making and Analysis of the Main International Initiatives on Developing Indicators on Democracy and Good Governance. Unpublished manuscript, University of Essex.

Levi, M. 1996. Social and Unsocial Capital: A Review Essay of Robert Putnam’s Making Democracy Work. Politics & Society 24:145-155.

McHenry, D.E. 2000. Quantitative Measures of Democracy in Africa: An Assessment. Democratization 7(2):168-185.

Moon, B.E., Birdsall, J.H., Ciesluk, S., Garlett, L.M., Hermias, J.H., Mendenhall, E., Schmid, P.D., and Wong, W.H. 2006. Voting Counts: Participation in the Measurement of Democracy. Studies in Comparatie International Deelopment 41(2):3-32.

Munck, G.L. 2006. Standards for Evaluating Electoral Processes by OAS Election Observation Missions. Paper prepared for Organization of American States.

Munck, G.L., and Verkuilen, J. 2002. Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy: Alternative Indices. Comparatie Political Studies 35(1):5-34.

Pagden, A. 1998. The Genesis of Governance and Enlightenment Conceptions of the Cosmopolitan World Order. International Social Science Journal 50(1):7-15.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 20 | 21 || 23 | 24 |   ...   | 62 |


Similar works:

«Aus dem Robert-Koch-Institut Molekulare Immunologie DISSERTATION Induktionsbedingungen und kostimulatorische Effekte von ICOS – einem neuen TZellspezifischen Oberflächenantigen Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades doctor medicinae (Dr. med.) vorgelegt der Medizinischen Fakultät Charité der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin von Anna-Maria Dittrich aus Göttingen Dekan: Prof. Dr. med. Dr. h. c. R. Felix Gutachter: 1. Prof. Dr. R.A. Kroczek 2. Prof. Dr. A. Radbruch 3. Prof. Dr. A. Ziegler...»

«A BETTER WORLD STARTS WITH BETTER INNOVATION 2013 Annual Report breakthrough technologies and services focused on Dear Fellow Shareholders, addressing specific customer and market needs. Several 2013 was another year of great progress in exciting focus areas include informatics, mobile PerkinElmer’s journey to deliver innovative applications, mass spectrometry, and multi-spectral solutions to meaningfully improve human and imaging, all of which are important technologies in developing...»

«CancerLinQ™ Data Governance Policies I. Introduction The American Society of Clinical Oncology (“ASCO”) and ASCO’s wholly owned subsidiary, CancerLinQ LLC, are committed to conquering cancer through appropriate, secure, and ethical usage of health information entrusted to CancerLinQ. ASCO believes that the ability to learn from every patient will accelerate progress against cancer and will give patients and physicians more comprehensive information to make decisions about cancer...»

«©Österr. Ges. f. Tropenmedizin u. Parasitologie, download unter www.biologiezentrum.at Mitt. Österr. Ges. Tropenmed. Parasitol. 14 (1992) 293 306 Institut für Allgemeine Hygiene und Tropenhygiene der Universität Göttingen (ehem. Leiter: Prof. Dr. W. Bommer) (1) Hygiene-Institut der Universität Göttingen, Abt. Medizinische Mikrobiologie (Direktor: Prof. Dr. R. Thomssen) (2) Prolongierte haemolytische Anämie bei Malaria: Die Bedeutung von Autoantikörpern gegen Triosephosphat-Isomerase...»

«       Humanitarian Requirements     Mid-Year Review 2015                   Joint Government and Humanitarian Partners’ Document             August 2015 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.3 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND.4 1.1 2015 Annual HRD Mid-Year Review.4 1.2 Humanitarian Situation Overview.4 2. REVISED 2015 ANNUAL SECTOR REQUIREMENTS.7 2.1 Relief Food and TSF..7 2.2 Health and Nutrition.10 2.3 WaSH..14 2.4 Agriculture..16 2.5 Education..17...»

«WORLD DOCTORS World Doctors Orchestra ORCHESTRA 5. Benefizkonzert / 5th Charity Concert World Health Summit 2010 Charity Night 11. Oktober 2010, 19.30 Uhr / October 11, 2010, 7.30 p.m. Konzerthaus am Gendarmenmarkt, Berlin Charité Berlin World Health Summit October 10th -13th, 2010 | Berlin, Germany Programm World Doctors Orchestra Dirigent: Stefan Willich Philharmonischer Chor Berlin Einstudierung: Jörg-Peter Weigle Solisten: Anja Kampe, Sopran Julia Rutigliano, Alt Endrik Wottrich, Tenor...»

«European on Health Systems and Policies TACKLING CHRONIC DISEASE IN EUROPE Strategies, interventions and challenges Reinhard Busse, Miriam Blümel, David Scheller-Kreinsen, Annette Zentner Observatory Studies Series No 20 Tackling chronic disease in Europe The European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies supports and promotes evidencebased health policy-making through comprehensive and rigorous analysis of health systems in Europe. It brings together a wide range of policy-makers,...»

«Hochschuljahr 2009/2009 an der Universitatea Babeş Bolyai in Cluj Napoca, Rumänien, Erziehungswissenschaften Ein Wort vorweg Wer in Cluj vor hat sein Studienniveau aufrecht zu erhalten ist, was das Angebot und die universitäre Struktur / Kultur angeht fehl am platz, studiert er nicht Medizin, Europastudien oder Rumänisch. Wer in Cluj die Erfahrung einer anderen Kultur und die Selbsterfahrung sucht, kann möglicherweise im Rahmen des Erasmus-Programms nicht an einen besseren Ort gelangen....»

«CURRICULUM VITAE JÜRG C. STREULI, MD, PHD, MAS NEUMARKT 25, 8001 ZÜRICH SWITZERLAND Work: +41 44 266 34 81 / + 41 44 634 83 71 Mail: juerg.streuli@kispi.uzh.ch or streuli@ethik.uzh.ch WORKING EXPERIENCE 2015/07-present Senior physician (Oberarzt) in Pediatric Palliative Care, University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (at 50%) 2015/01-present Senior Assistant, Institute of Biomedical Ethics, University of Zurich, Switzerland (at 50%) 2012/08-2015/06 Fellowship Pediatric Services,...»

«HIV-spezifische DNA-Impfstoffe mit verbessertem Sicherheitsund Wirksamkeitsprofil: Grundlage innovativer Vakzinestrategien DISSERTATION ZUR ERLANGUNG DES DOKTORGRADES DER NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN (DR.RER.NAT.) DER NATURWISSENSCHAFTLICHEN FAKULTÄT III -BIOLOGIE UND VORKLINISCHE MEDIZINDER UNIVERSITÄT REGENSBURG vorgelegt von Kurt Bieler aus Weiden Mai 2002 Die vorliegende Dissertation wurde zwischen März 1998 und Mai 2002 am Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene an der Universität...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.dislib.info - Free e-library - Books, dissertations, abstract

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.