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«Pipeline Associated Watercourse Crossings 3rd Edition October 2005 The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) is the voice of the ...»

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Source: Adapted from CAPP 1993

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DWG. NO. 34

Construction Notes:

1. Navigable Waters approval might be required prior to installing opposing rock wing deflectors.

2. Proper placement and design is critical and qualified specialists should be involved.

3. All rocks must slope down to the middle of the watercourse to the point of the deflector.

4. The upstream face must contain the largest rocks so that the pressure of the flow may be resisted. Smaller rocks may be placed on the downstream face. Each rock is to be placed in the shadow of the previous rock from the point to the bank. All rock must fit tightly together and be jammed together by machinery.

5. Place the upstream rock face in a trench, then place the downstream rock face in a similar trench, taking care that the rocks slope upwards to the side of the watercourse such that the point of the deflector is about 0.3 m above the water level and the root is at least 1 to 1.5 m above current water level. Ensure the pipeline is not damaged during this excavation.

6. Excavate the downstream run, placing much of the spoil material within the confines of the two rock faces. The top surface of the spoil must be below the level of the adjacent rock faces. All remaining spoil must be deposited 10 m outside the streambanks and preferably 1.5 m above the water level.

7. In very large watercourses, a double row of rocks will be required for both the up and downstream faces of the deflectors.

8. The open area in the middle of the watercourse must be about 1/4 of the watercourse width or less, so that a section of the rapid flow conditions exists to funnel the water into the downstream run. On occasion the opening must be constricted even more to provide higher flow velocities when necessary.

9. The instream point of the deflectors shall be 0.6 m above the streambed. Ensure that the root of the deflectors is 1.0 to 1.5 m above current water levels and firmly imbedded in the streambank.

10. All elevations relate to low streamflow in the spring or fall.

DWG. NO. 35

Construction Notes:

1. Navigable Waters approval might be required prior to installing a log deflector.

2. Proper placement and design is critical and qualified specialists should be involved.

3. Select sound, straight coniferous trees; trim all branches; debark all logs and transport to the site. Cut logs to the required length.

4. The main deflector logs are set into a pre-excavated trench in the streambed. The base of the logs must be on the bank, and the points of the deflector on the streambed. Where only smaller logs are available, one log is set on top of another and pinned together for support and correct alignment. A 15 cm (minimum) diameter post is to be driven deeply into the streambed at the inside point of the deflector logs for additional support. The logs may also be pinned to the streambed with reinforcing steel.

5. The deflector logs must extend from a low point in the watercourse (about 1/3 to 1/2 the watercourse width) up and into the banks a distance of 1.5 - 2 m. Additional logs are placed on top of the initial logs if necessary and pinned to the bottom log and cabled to the post for additional support.

6. Place large rocks around and against the base of the deflector logs and on the inside point to hold them firmly in place.

7. The top of the log deflector shall not be more than 0.6 m above the streambed, unless a more effective deflector is required.

Source: Adapted from CAPP 1993 CURRENT DEFLECTORS – TYPICAL LOG DEFLECTOR (Small Watercourses, Width 5 m)

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DWG. NO. 40

Construction Notes:

1. Navigable Waters approval might be required prior to the installation of a Double Crest V Weir.

2. Proper placement and design is critical and qualified specialists should be involved.

3. All weir crest rocks must slope down from the banks to the upstream point of the weir to confine the main flow to the middle 1/3 of the watercourse.

4. All rock must extend upstream from the bank where they are buried deeply to the middle point of the weir.

5. The largest (8-16) rocks must be placed at the point of the weir in a double row and set in place with the longest side pointing down (as shown) in a trench already excavated for this purpose. All rock is to be jammed together by machinery to provide tight as practical fit.

Additional stabilizing rocks and spoil are to be placed around these rocks. Then the remainder of the weir crest may be built. The weir crest width should be 2.0 m wide.

6. The upstream notch on the weir must be within the middle third of the watercourse, but may be placed at any point within to move the current from side to side. Bank armouring may be necessary in such cases where potential bank erosion exists.

7. The top of the rocks in the notch of the weir is not to be more than 0.6 m above the streambed, unless an upstream pool is required.

The bank tie-in location is to be 1.5 m above the watercourse elevation. Ensure that the rocks taper gradually from the notch to the tie-in point on the bank.

8. Only a minor amount of spoil material may be used to fill in the voids in the weir crest to prevent water from flowing through the weir.

The spoil is only to ensure relative water tightness. All remaining spoil material must be placed 10 m beyond the streambanks, preferably 1.5 m above current water level.

9. All elevation differences shall relate to the low streamflow conditions in the fall, or at time of inspection, whichever is less.

10. All individual placed rocks to be a uniform size.

11. Pool depth to be 1.5-2.5 m maximum due to watercourse width.

Source: Adapted from CAPP 1993 OVERPOUR STRUCTURES – TYPICAL V WEIR – DOUBLE CREST (Larger Watercourses)

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DWG. NO. 41

Construction Notes:

1. Navigable Waters approval might be required prior to the installation of a typical resting pool.

2. Proper placement and design is critical and qualified specialists should be involved.

3. Locate the pool in a relatively straight section of the watercourse. Moderate existing depth is best indicator.

4. Centre the pool in the deepest part of the channel.

5. Pool width is not to exceed 2/3 of the channel width.

6. Pool depth must be a minimum of 1.5 m, but not to exceed 2.5 m.

7. Pool length is not to exceed 4 pool widths, normally about 3 times pool width is recommended.

8. Typical pool dimensions range from 2 m x 4 m on a small watercourse to 10 m x 40 m for a large watercourse. Excavations normally produce a water depth of 2 m or greater during low flow conditions in most watercourses, and greater than 2 m in large watercourses.

9. All spoil material is to be placed 10 m outside the channel limits at the time of construction (low flow) preferably in an abandoned dry side channel, a minimum of 1.5 m above current water level. This will avoid the material being washed back into the pool with the first high water.

10. Individual rocks 0.8 to 1.2 m in diameter may be placed at or below but no greater than 0.3 m above current water level at the time of work.

Source: Adapted from CAPP 1993

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DWG. NO. 42

Construction Notes:

1. Navigable Waters approval might be required prior to the installation of an excavated fish run.

2. Proper placement and design is critical and qualified specialists should be involved.

3. Excavated run is located within the middle 1/2 of the watercourse, crossing the deepest section, or as directed in the field.

4. The excavated run is composed of several straight sections, placed at angles to each other to provide a deep meandering channel in an otherwise straight, wide and shallow reach.

5. Individual rocks or rock clusters may be placed within the excavated run (width permitting) or along the outside to deflect the main current into the excavated run and maintain higher velocities to reduce sediment deposition within the trench.

6. With this structure, care of spoil is important since improperly disposed of material could easily be swept back into the excavated run. Spoil material is to be removed 10 m from the channel, 1.5 m above current water level.

7. Excavated run structures may be accompanied by rock clusters, deflectors and overhang structures to provide high quality habitat.

Source: Adapted from CAPP 1993

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Fifty-nine examples of open cut crossings are summarized. These examples discuss water crossing construction at various sized watercourses using the plow, hoe, clamshell dragline, yo-yo dragline and dredge techniques.

All small watercourses (10 m wide) were excavated by hoes with the exception of one which was plowed-in. Construction of all small watercourses were completed in less than one day with the exception of the plowed-in crossing, which required an extra day for bank preparation. Sedimentation and water quality were monitored at several crossings. No detectable changes in water chemistry or composition of streambed materials were recorded when the plow method was used. A dramatic increase in suspended sediments and increased benthic drift were reported during an open cut crossing with hoe excavation.

However, it was concluded that the negative impacts to the benthic community were limited to the period immediately following construction and no negative impacts on the benthic community were detected after peak spring flow.

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A high suspended sediment load was common in those crossings which were monitored for TSS or turbidity as well as those with anecdotal observations. One crossing with very coarse sediments had a "very large percentage" of sediment deposited within the first 200 m, while another in coarse sediments indicated that construction did not result in a significant sediment load. Other observations indicated that after 24 hours very little or no sediments remained in suspension and that, in general, most impacts seemed to be very short-lived and substrate composition returned to preconstruction conditions within nine months. Only two references to biotic impact are referenced in the case histories for open cut trenching. One monitoring program found that after one month there had been no significant increase in mountain whitefish egg mortality downstream of the crossing and juvenile whitefish continued to use pool habitats. It was also noted that although the high level of suspended solids was injurious to some fish, the relatively short-term nature of the disturbance minimized effects on downstream fish. Another anecdotal comment points out that extra time spent trucking spoil offsite resulted in increased instream activity that likely caused more disturbance than would have occurred with instream spoil storage.

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The comments related to impacts on biotic resources and water quality at larger water crossings were similar to those of smaller watercourses.

In general, open cut crossings are always successful although they range in difficulty and the degree of success. No examples of abandoned attempts of open cut crossings were encountered. Those crossings which were well constructed and successful were well planned, had sufficient equipment onsite, had experienced crews and were completed in as little time as practical. Crossings tended to have low success where: the floodplain or staging area was too wet or too small, the substrates were too soft or sandy, the contractor was disorganized and had no plan, there was an inappropriate use of instream sediment control devices; poor advice from inspectors and government representatives undersized equipment; or flood conditions.

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