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«Pipeline Associated Watercourse Crossings 3rd Edition October 2005 The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) is the voice of the ...»

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3. Ensure silt fence is keyed into the substrate. Excavate a narrow trench, place the base of the silt fence in the trench and place the fill back into the trench, securing the silt fence in place.

4. Place silt fences a minimum 2 m, if feasible, from the toe of the slope in order to increase ponding volume.

5. Maintain silt fences throughout construction.

6. Ensure that silt fences, if removed or damaged, are reinstalled or repaired prior to the end of the work day.

7. Maintain silt fences in place at the base of the approach slopes until revegetation of the right-of-way is complete.

8. In areas with frequent traffic, install two or more silt fences in a staggered and overlapped configuration to allow vehicle passage without removal or opening of the silt fence.

Source: Adapted from TERA 1998, Alliance 1997

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DWG. NO. 18


1. Install trench breakers to control water seepage along the trench line and prevent erosion of backfill materials.

2. Trench breakers may be constructed using earth filled sacks, bentonite, foam or equivalent materials to provide a barrier to water seepage.

3. The drawings above provide a schematic representation of trench breaker installation. Final locations and design of trench breakers will be determined by the project engineer based on site specific conditions at the time of construction.

4. Dig keys into trench bottom and sides to the extent feasible for added stability.

5. Install a prefabricated drain or a layer of sand or gravel covered with filter cloth over the breaker.

6. Backfill native material and mark location of breaker.

7. Ensure cross ditches are located over the end of the drain.

8. Construct diversion berms downslope from the breaker but not over the end of the drain.

9. Ensure that trench crown does not encroach upon the breaker drain or cross ditch.

10. Backfill trench on downslope side of breaker before upslope side.

DWG. NO. 19


1. Install a subdrain to divert shallow groundwater flow away from the pipeline, to improve slope stability. Clean gravel and a filter cloth ditch liner, permits drainage aiding in retention of backfill. In certain circumstances, a parallel drain may be installed lengthwise down the slope underneath the pipeline. A geotechnical engineer can advise as to which method is most appropriate.

2. Install trench breaker downslope of drain, where drains cross pipeline trench, to prevent drain water flowing down pipe trench.

3. Determine the location of drain by on-site investigation considering such factors as groundwater conditions in trench, soil types, local topography, and drainage patterns. Discharge may either be off right-of-way on the downslope side of the subdrain (see Subdrain Exit "A"), or on right-of-way downslope of the berm (see Subdrain Exit "B"). Special permission will be required from the appropriate regulatory authority and landowner to construct a subdrain exit off right-of-way. Ensure discharge is into a well protected area with gravel, riprap or vegetation.

Skew cross drain 5o off horizontal to ensure sufficient drainage.


5. The above drawing is a schematic diagram. A geotechnical engineer should be consulted for the detailed site specific drain design and the incorporation of the trench breaker.

DWG. NO. 22


1. Proper placement and design is critical and qualified specialists should be involved.

2. Remove all stumps, organic matter and work material and grade/prepare banks to a maximum slope as directed by a geotechnical engineer.

3. Construct toe trench to key in bottom of armour protection, or adopt thickened toe option.

4. Install filter cloth (geotextile) or gravel filter layer.

5. Place rip rap on slope to be protected such that a well-interlocked, smooth layer is produced.

6. Rip rap should be dense, durable, roughly equidimensional (not flat and thin), angular and clean.

7. Size of rip rap used is dependent upon slope of bank and water velocity.

8. The minimum thickness of a rip rap layer shall be 1.5 to 2 times the approximate dimensions of rock being used.

9. Key in up and downstream ends of the armoured bank in a manner such that it will not be outflanked.

10. Rip rap should extend 0.5 m (min) above design flood level. If design flood level is above the top of the bank, rip rap should be placed to the top of the bank.

11. Rip rap should be flush with bank adjacent to the right-of-way.

Source: Alliance 1998

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DWG. NO. 23


1. Proper placement and design is critical and qualified specialists should be involved.

2. Select only good, sound, straight coniferous trees with adequate branches and a minimum length of 10 m.

3. Do not trim any branches and handle with care. Leave root ball intact if possible and transport the trees to the site with a minimum of handling to reduce damage to the branches. To the extent practical, remove soil material from the rootball before placing the tree instream. Place the trees lengthwise along or across the eroding bank to be protected beginning at the downstream end with the tips of the trees pointed in the downstream direction.

4. Begin assembly of the tree revetment at the downstream end and place tie back cable on the tree butt (largest end). Attach the cable to a suitable deadman or large armour rock with a drilled hole. Bury the anchor securely in the adjacent bank.

5. Place the butt of the next tree one-half the length of the previous tree or less upstream along the bank, so there is an overlap of the trees. If possible, cable the trees together in addition to cabling to an anchor buried in the bank.

6. Rock armour may be added along the toe of the slope, beneath the trees to reinforce the level of protection provided.

7. Maintenance, consisting of replacing severely damaged trees, will extend the life span.

8. Coniferous tree revetments also may be used as instream cover.

Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game (n.d.)


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DWG. NO. 24


1. Proper placement and design is critical and qualified specialists should be involved.

2. Gabions can be installed on slopes that exceed 1.5:1. Installation flat to slope is preferred on high banks.

3. Gabions should be installed to a height of about 1 m above high water level.

4. Care should be taken not to restrict stream channel capacity, particularly on smaller watercourses.

5. A key trench is to be excavated along the toe of the bank to a point below anticipated scour depth. Place filter fabric and a bedding layer of coarse gravel on excavated slope as gabions are installed.

6. Gabions should be tied together with heavy gauge wire and anchored into the banks at the up and downstream ends.

7. Fill gabion baskets in layers with angular rock larger than the mesh openings. Close and tie down the first row and repeat.

Backfill behind baskets and cap with topsoil.

Source: Adapted from Envirowest 1990

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1. Salvage and replace shrubs on all watercourse banks where shrubs are present on the right-of-way.

2. Salvage whole bushes from the right-of-way during grading of banks. Ensure bulk of root mass is surrounded by soil.

3. Store salvaged shrubs on edge of right-of-way, cover with soil and do not let dry out.

4. Transplant as quickly as practical when reconstructing watercourse banks.

5. Soak the ground around the transplant with water.

DWG. NO. 29


1. Proper placement and design is critical and qualified specialists should be involved.

2. Secure the toe of the slope with appropriate technique (coniferous tree revetments, log wall, riprap, etc.).

3. Begin layering at the bottom of slope with first hedge/brush layer situated at the approximate high water mark or lower. Select plant species suitable for site conditions.

4. Excavate the first bench 0.5-1.0 m deep, ensuring not to damage the pipeline, angled slightly down into the slope. Lay branches and transplants on the bench, slightly criss-crossing, with shoots extending beyond the edge of the bench by approximately 20% of their length.

5. Plant 18-25 stems per metre, using higher densities for more erosive sites or if the cutting's diameter is small. Cover with 5-10 cm of soil and tamp into place.

6. Continue building layers with damp soil and cuttings until bank height is reached. Vary spacing between layers based on erosion potential.

7. For best results dig transplants in spring or late summer and plant the same day. Keep transplants moist. A mixture of plant species can mimic adjacent undisturbed vegetation.

DWG. NO. 31

Construction Notes - Weighted Tree in Pool:

1. Proper placement and design is critical and qualified specialists should be involved.

2. Navigable Waters approval may be required prior to installing log or root balls.

3. Use only sound, straight coniferous trees with adequate branches and root ball, 6-8 m in length, with a minimum diameter of 0.4 m.

4. Trim the root ball and all branches so that they remain 0.6 m below the surface of the pool and will not snag any boat traffic or debris.

5. Place 50 kg or more concrete pipe weights on each end of the tree, where the trunk will support the heavy weights, and move the tree into the pool area utilizing two backhoes, if feasible. Carefully lower the tree to the bottom of the upstream end of the pool (breakage may occur due to heavy pipe weights).

6. Place Rock Clusters in and around the pool as desired.

7. Weighted trees may be added to or removed from pools at any time after construction to change shelter provisions.

Construction Notes -Root Ball Cover:

1. Proper placement and design is critical and qualified specialists should be involved.

2. Navigable Waters approval may be required prior to installing log or root balls.

3. Select and clean large coniferous root balls.

4. Trim and anchor root balls securely to bank or streambed so that they remain 0.6 m below the water surface.

DWG. NO. 33

Construction Notes - Concrete Ledge Overhang:

1. Navigable Waters approval might be required prior to installing bank overhang.

2. Proper placement and design is critical and qualified specialists should be involved.

3. If the Concrete Ledge section is added before bank armour rock installed is complete, place only lower portion of rock upon which concrete chute sections will rest. Install all necessary tiebacks, anchors and individual rocks within the flume, taking great care that the flume sections line up horizontally and are well supported.

4. If the flume section is added to an existing armour rock bank, keep the disturbance of the armour rock to a minimum, removing only enough rock to set the flume sections firmly in place. Install the needed tiebacks, anchors and individual rocks within the flume, ensuring the flume sections line up horizontally.

5. Replace the armour rock around the back and ends of the chute, ensuring that no change in horizontal alignment takes place.

6. Backfill the top of the structure with light armour rock. Add soil grass and trees where possible on or near the embankment.

7. This structure may be placed at any location whether there is existing bank protection or not. The method of construction will keep the disturbance of the armour rock to a minimum.

8. Maintenance may be required to maintain proper horizontal alignment of the sections to avoid damage occurring to the structure when a strong current catches an edge separation.

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