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«Pipeline Associated Watercourse Crossings 3rd Edition October 2005 The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) is the voice of the ...»

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Pipeline Associated

Watercourse Crossings

3rd Edition

October 2005

The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) is the voice of the

upstream oil and natural gas industry in Canada. CAPP represents 150 member

companies who explore for, develop and produce more than 98 per cent of

Canada's natural gas, crude oil, oil sands and elemental sulphur.

Our members are part of a $75-billion-a year industry that affects the lives of

every Canadian. Petroleum and the products made from it play a vital role in our daily lives. In addition to providing heating and transportation fuels, oil and natural gas are the main building blocks for an endless list of products - from clothing and carpets, to medicines, glues and paints.

Working closely with our members, governments, communities and stakeholders, CAPP analyzes key oil and gas issues and represents member interests nationally in 12 of Canada's 13 provinces and territories. We also strive to achieve consensus on industry codes of practice and operating guidelines that meet or exceed government standards.

The Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) represents Canada's transmission pipeline companies. Our members are world leaders in providing safe, reliable long-distance transportation for over 95% of the oil and natural gas that is produced in Canada. CEPA is dedicated to ensuring a strong and viable transmission pipeline industry in Canada in a manner that emphasizes public safety and pipeline integrity, social and environmental stewardship, and cost competitiveness.

The Canadian Gas Association (CGA) is the voice of Canada’s natural gas delivery industry. CGA represents local distribution companies from coast to coast as well as long distance pipeline companies and related manufacturers and other service providers. CGA and its members stand at the junction where Canada’s gas delivery system meets the needs of over five million Canadian natural gas customers. CGA’s members deliver over 25% of the energy used in Canada.

Disclaimer This publication was prepared for the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) and Canadian Gas Association (CGA) by TERA Environmental Consultants in association with Salmo Consulting Inc. and Applied Aquatic Research Ltd. While it is believed that the information contained herein is reliable under the conditions and subject to the limitations set out, CAPP, CEPA, CGA and TERA Environmental Consultants do not guarantee its accuracy. The use of this report or any information contained will be at the user’s sole risk, regardless of any fault or negligence of TERA Environmental Consultants, CAPP, CEPA or CGA.

Suggested citation:

Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, Canadian Energy Pipeline Association and Canadian Gas Association. 2005. Pipeline Associated Watercourse Crossings. Prepared by TERA Environmental Consultants and Salmo Consulting Inc. Calgary, AB.

Overview In 2004, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) and Canadian Gas Association (CGA) initiated revision of the Canadian Pipeline Water Crossing Committee (CPWCC) document Watercourse Crossings, Second Edition to incorporate regulatory and technological advancements. Feedback was solicited from government and industry regarding the second edition of Watercourse Crossings, and those comments were incorporated in this third edition.

This document outlines the present regulatory framework under which pipeline associated watercourse crossings are assessed and constructed in Canada. In addition, it suggests measures to assist pipeline companies, governing agencies and contractors during the planning, construction, operation and maintenance of pipeline associated watercourse crossings. The development of this document is seen as a means to promote a consistent approach to pipeline associated watercourse crossings throughout Canada and to aid in developing a common understanding among industry, government and other stakeholders.

–  –  –

1 Introduction

1.1 Updates to Document

1.2 Effects on Aquatic Habitat

1.2.1 Effects on Fish Populations

1.2.2 Additional Consequences of Watercourse Crossings

1.2.3 Natural Watercourse Dynamics

1.3 Objectives for Watercourse Crossings

2 Regulatory and Information Requirements

2.1 Federal Jurisdictions

2.1.1 Fisheries Act

2.1.2 Navigable Waters Protection Act

2.1.3 National Energy Board Act

2.1.4 Canadian Environmental Assessment Act

2.1.5 Indian Oil and Gas Act

2.1.6 Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act

2.1.7 Species At Risk Act

2.1.8 Migratory Birds Convention Act

2.2 Provincial and Territorial Jurisdictions

2.2.1 Alberta

2.2.2 British Columbia

2.2.3 Manitoba

2.2.4 New Brunswick

2.2.5 Newfoundland and Labrador

2.2.6 Northwest Territories

2.2.7 Nova Scotia

2.2.8 Nunavut

2.2.9 Ontario

2.2.10 Prince Edward Island

2.2.11 Québec

2.2.12 Saskatchewan

2.2.13 Yukon

3 Description of Crossing Techniques

3.1 Pipeline Crossings

3.2 Temporary Vehicle Crossings

4 Risk-based Watercourse Crossing Selection Process

4.1 DFO Risk Management Framework

4.1.1 Elements of a Risk Management Program

4.1.2 Process for Assessing Risk to Fish Habitat

4.2 Crossing Assessment

Page viii October 2005 Pipeline Associated Watercourse Crossings 3rd Edition 4.2.1 Aquatic Assessment

4.2.2 Geotechnical and Hydraulic Assessment

4.2.3 Cumulative Effects

4.3 Environmental Selection Considerations

4.3.1 Regulatory Risk

4.3.2 Construction Risk

4.3.3 Post-Construction Risk

4.4 Economic Selection Considerations

4.4.1 Direct Costs

4.4.2 Indirect Costs

4.5 Crossing Method Selection

4.5.1 Pipeline Crossings

4.5.2 Vehicle Crossings

5 Environmental Mitigation Procedures

5.1 Planning and Design

5.2 Crossing Construction

5.2.1 General Mitigation Procedures

5.2.2 Surveying

5.2.3 Clearing

5.2.4 Topsoil Handling

5.2.5 Grading

5.2.6 Welding and Weighting

5.2.7 Instream Blasting

5.2.8 Construction of Isolated Crossings

5.2.9 Pipe Installation

5.2.10 Subsurface Drainage Control

5.2.11 Surface Erosion and Sediment Control

5.2.12 Instream Sediment Control

5.2.13 Backfilling

5.2.14 Clean-up and Reclamation

5.2.15 Temporary Vehicle Crossings

5.2.16 Abandonment

6 Habitat Mitigation and Compensation

6.1 Compensation

6.1.1 Compensation Plans

6.1.2 Habitat Compensation Options

6.1.3 Determining the Amount of Compensation Required

6.2 Mitigation and Compensation Techniques

6.2.1 Bank and Riparian Habitat Restoration and Enhancement

6.2.2 Instream Habitat Restoration and Enhancement

7 Monitoring Crossing Project Performance

7.1 Environmental Monitoring During Construction

7.1.1 Environmental Inspection

Page ix October 2005 Pipeline Associated Watercourse Crossings 3rd Edition 7.1.2 Suspended Sediment Load

7.1.3 Substrate Composition

7.1.4 Biological Monitoring

7.1.5 Monitoring During Blasting and Diversions

7.2 Post-Construction Monitoring

8 References

Appendices Appendix A Typical Watercourse Crossing Drawings Appendix B Watercourse Crossing Case History Summaries Figures Figure 4.1 Planning Summary for Watercourse Crossings

Figure 4.2 DFO Risk Determination Matrix

Figure 4.3 Process for Assessing Risk to Fish Habitat

Tables Table 2.1 Regulatory and Information Contacts

Table 3.1 Pipeline Watercourse Crossing Construction Techniques

Table 3.2 Vehicle Watercourse Crossing Techniques

Table 4.1 Environmental and Engineering Considerations for Pipeline Crossing Selection

Table 4.2 Detailed Aquatic Assessment Evaluation Parameters

Table 4.3 Cumulative Effects Analysis Tools for Watercourse Crossings

Table 4.4 Risk Considerations for Watercourse Crossing Methods

Table 4.5 Relative Costs of Watercourse Crossing Techniques

Table 4.6 Economic Considerations of Watercourse Crossing Methods

Table 4.7 Pipeline Crossing Construction Technique Selection Considerations.

.............. 4-27 Table 4.8 Vehicle Crossing Technique Selection Considerations

Table 5.1 Erosion Control Techniques

Table 6.1 Bank Restoration and Enhancement

Table 6.2 Instream Habitat Restoration and Enhancement Techniques

Page x October 2005 Pipeline Associated Watercourse Crossings 3rd Edition 1 Introduction Watercourse crossings are a unique component of pipeline construction projects.

Watercourse crossing construction typically requires devoted crews and specialized equipment, specific engineering design and specific planning and regulatory approval considerations. Crossings pose unique risks to the success of pipeline projects, and ultimately to the contractors that construct them.

The regulatory requirements for the approval and construction of pipeline associated watercourse crossings in Canada vary according to the jurisdiction in which the project is being built and the environmental setting within which the project is planned. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), formerly the Canadian Petroleum Association, the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) and various committees have been tracking this issue for over twenty-five years. To ensure that regulators, industry and other stakeholders are kept current on new initiatives from a regulatory and technical standpoint, CAPP, CEPA and the Canadian Gas Association (CGA) have updated the Second Edition, Watercourse Crossings (1999) with this Third Edition of Pipeline Associated Watercourse Crossings.

This document is intended to give regulators, industry practitioners and other stakeholders a summary of aspects of planning and constructing pipeline associated watercourse crossings. Its development is seen as a means to promote a consistent approach to pipeline associated watercourse crossings throughout Canada and to aid in developing a common understanding among industry, regulators and others (e.g., nongovernment organizations). Pipeline Associated Watercourse Crossings strives to offer the reader options for consideration in the planning, review, approval and construction, as well as operations and maintenance, of pipeline associated watercourse crossings.

–  –  –

1.1 Updates to Document This edition concentrates on recent regulatory and technical advances in pipeline associated watercourse crossings. Much of the information is repeated from CAPP (1993) and the Canadian Pipeline Water Crossing Committee (CPWCC) (CPWCC 1999), but has been updated with information from a consultation program involving key regulators from all jurisdictions as well as industry representatives. The consultation program attempted to clarify objectives and information requirements from each jurisdiction, as well as tap the field expertise of industry representatives and regulatory agents as to their observations and recommendations regarding pipeline associated watercourse crossing construction.

–  –  –

Comments on the Second Edition of this document were solicited from a variety of regulatory and industry sources in late 2004 and incorporated into the revisions. A draft of the Third Edition was circulated to those who responded with comments and again their input was incorporated into the document. This final version has since been reviewed by many practitioners active in the planning, construction and inspection of pipeline associated watercourse crossings, and takes into account their many years of collective experience.

1.2 Effects on Aquatic Habitat

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