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We recognized income of $18.2 million in fiscal year 2013, a loss of $35.3 million in fiscal year 2012 and a loss of $75.0 million in fiscal year 2011 for our retirement and postretirement benefit plans, which includes the charge for the mark-to-market adjustment for the postretirement benefit plans, which generally is recorded in the fourth quarter. The gain or expense related to the mark-to-market adjustment on postretirement benefit plans was a pre-tax income of $17.6 million in fiscal year 2013, a pre-tax loss of $31.8 million in fiscal year 2012 and a pre-tax loss of $67.9 million in fiscal year 2011. We expect expenses of approximately $1.7 million in fiscal year 2014 for our retirement and postretirement benefit plans, excluding the charge for or benefit from the mark-tomarket adjustment. It is difficult to reliably calculate and predict whether there will be a mark-to-market adjustment in fiscal year 2014. Mark-to-market adjustments are primarily driven by events and circumstances beyond our control, including changes in interest rates and the performance of the financial markets. To the extent the discount rates decrease or the value of our pension and postretirement investments decrease, mark-to market charges to operations will be recorded in fiscal year 2014. Conversely, to the extent the discount rates increase or the value of our pension and postretirement investments increase more than expected, mark-to market income will be recorded in fiscal year 2014.
As of December 29, 2013, we estimate the expected long-term rate of return on assets in our pension portfolios in the United States to be 7.25% and to be 5.30% for all plans outside the United States. In addition, as of December 29, 2013 we estimate the discount rate for our pension portfolios in the United States to be 4.77% and to be 3.77% for all plans outside the United States. We have analyzed the rates of return on assets used and determined that these rates are reasonable based on the plans’ historical performance relative to the overall markets in the countries where we invest the assets, as well as our current expectations for long-term rates of returns for our pension and other postretirement benefit assets. Our management will continue to assess the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets assumptions for each plan based on relevant market conditions, and will make adjustments to the assumptions as appropriate. Discount rate assumptions have been, and continue to be, based on the prevailing market long-term interest rates corresponding with expected benefit payments at the measurement date.
If any of our assumptions were to change as of December 29, 2013, our pension plan expenses would also change.
We have reduced the volatility in our healthcare costs provided to our retirees by adopting a defined dollar plan feature in fiscal year 2001. Under the defined dollar plan feature, our total annual liability for healthcare costs to any one retiree is limited to a fixed dollar amount, regardless of the nature or cost of the healthcare needs of that retiree. Our maximum future liability, therefore, cannot be increased by future changes in the cost of healthcare.
Restructuring activities. Our consolidated financial statements detail specific charges relating to restructuring activities as well as the actual spending that has occurred against the resulting accruals. Our pre-tax restructuring charges are estimates based on our preliminary assessments of (i) severance benefits to be granted to employees, based on known benefit formulas and identified job grades, (ii) costs to abandon certain facilities based on known lease costs of sub-rental income and (iii) impairment of assets as discussed above under “Value of long-lived assets, including goodwill and other intangibles.” Because these accruals are estimates, they are subject to change as a result of deviations from initial restructuring plans or subsequent information that may come to our attention. For example, actual severance costs may be less than anticipated if employees voluntarily leave prior to the time at which they would be entitled to severance, or if anticipated legal hurdles in foreign jurisdictions prove to be less onerous than expected. In addition, unanticipated successes or difficulties in terminating leases and other contractual obligations may lead to changes in estimates. When such changes in estimates occur, they are reflected in our consolidated financial statements on our consolidated statements of operations line entitled “restructuring and contract termination charges, net.” Dispositions. When we record the disposition of an asset or discontinuance of an operation, we make an estimate relative to the amount we expect to realize on the sale or disposition. This estimate is based on a variety of factors, including current interest in the market, alternative markets for the assets, and other relevant factors. If anticipated proceeds are less than the current carrying amount of the asset or operation, we record a loss. If anticipated proceeds are greater than the current carrying amount of the asset or operation, we recognize a gain net of expected contingencies when the transaction has been consummated. Accordingly, we may realize amounts different than were first estimated. During the fiscal year ended December 29, 2013, we recorded $1.8 million in pre-tax losses from the disposition of discontinued operations. Any such changes decrease or increase current earnings.
Income taxes. Our business operations are global in nature, and we are subject to taxes in numerous jurisdictions. Tax laws and tax rates vary substantially in these jurisdictions, and are subject to change given the political and economic climate in those countries. We report and pay income tax based on operational results and applicable law. Our tax provision contemplates tax rates currently in effect to determine both our current and deferred tax provisions. Any significant fluctuation in rates or changes in tax laws could cause our estimates of taxes we anticipate either paying or recovering in the future to change. Such changes could lead to either increases or decreases in our effective tax rate.
Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes and recording the related tax assets and liabilities. In the ordinary course of our business, there are operational decisions, transactions, facts and circumstances, and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is not certain.
Furthermore, our tax positions are periodically subject to challenge by taxing authorities throughout the world.
Every quarter we review our tax positions in each significant taxing jurisdiction in the process of evaluating our unrecognized tax benefits. Adjustments are made to our unrecognized tax benefits when: (i) facts and circumstances regarding a tax position change, causing a change in our judgment regarding that tax position;
(ii) a tax position is effectively settled with a tax authority at a differing amount; and/or (iii) the statute of limitations expires regarding a tax position. Any significant impact as a result of changes in underlying facts, law, tax rates, tax audit, or review could lead to adjustments to our income tax expense, our effective tax rate, or our cash flow.
Additionally, we have established valuation allowances against a variety of deferred tax assets, including state net operating loss carryforwards, state income tax credit carryforwards, and certain foreign tax attributes.
Valuation allowances take into consideration our ability to use these deferred tax assets and reduce the value of such items to the amount that is deemed more likely than not to be recoverable. In evaluating our ability to recover our deferred tax assets within the jurisdiction from which they arise, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including reversals of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, taxplanning strategies, and results of recent operations. In projecting future taxable income, we begin with historical results adjusted for the results of discontinued operations and incorporate assumptions about the future pretax operating income adjusted for items that do not have tax consequences. These assumptions about future taxable income require significant judgment and are consistent with the plans and estimates we are using to manage the underlying business. Changes in our assumptions regarding the appropriate amount for valuation allowances could result in the increase or decrease in the valuation allowance, with a corresponding charge or benefit to our tax provision.
Taxes have not been provided on unremitted earnings of international subsidiaries that we consider indefinitely reinvested because we plan to keep these amounts indefinitely reinvested overseas except for instances where we can remit such earnings to the U.S. without an associated net tax cost. Our indefinite reinvestment determination is based on the future operational and capital requirements. As of December 29, 2013, the amount of foreign earnings that we have the intent and ability to keep invested outside the U.S.
indefinitely and for which no U.S. tax cost has been provided was approximately $607.0 million. It is not practical to calculate the unrecognized deferred tax liability on those earnings.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk Financial Instruments Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of temporary cash investments, derivatives, marketable securities and accounts receivable. We believe we had no significant concentrations of credit risk as of December 29, 2013.
We use derivative instruments as part of our risk management strategy only, and include derivatives utilized as economic hedges that are not designated as hedging instruments. By nature, all financial instruments involve market and credit risks. We enter into derivative instruments with major investment grade financial institutions and have policies to monitor the credit risk of those counterparties. We do not enter into derivative contracts for trading or other speculative purposes, nor do we use leveraged financial instruments. Approximately 60% of our business is conducted outside of the United States, generally in foreign currencies. Therefore, the fluctuations in foreign currency can increase the costs of financing, investing and operating the business.
In the ordinary course of business, we may enter into foreign exchange contracts for periods consistent with our committed exposures to mitigate the effect of foreign currency movements on transactions denominated in foreign currencies. Transactions covered by hedge contracts include intercompany and third-party receivables and payables. The contracts are primarily denominated in European and Asian currencies, have maturities that do not exceed 12 months, have no cash requirements until maturity, and are recorded at fair value on the consolidated balance sheets. Unrealized gains and losses on our foreign currency contracts are recognized immediately in earnings for hedges designated as fair value and, for hedges designated as cash flow, the related unrealized gains or losses are deferred as a component of other comprehensive income in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Deferred gains and losses are recognized in income in the period in which the underlying anticipated transaction occurs and impacts earnings.
Principal hedged currencies include the British Pound, Euro, Japanese Yen and Singapore Dollar. We held forward foreign exchange contracts, designated as fair value hedges, with U.S. equivalent notional amounts totaling $138.4 million at December 29, 2013 and $64.3 million at December 30, 2012, and the fair value of these foreign currency derivative contracts was insignificant. The gains and losses realized on foreign currency derivative contracts are not material. The duration of these contracts was generally 30 days or less during fiscal years 2013, 2012, and 2011.