FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, dissertations, abstract

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 |

«U.S. Foreign Policy and the Iran-Contra Affair: Was Oliver North a Patriot, a Pawn, or an Outlaw? Author: Catherine Holden, Franklin High School, ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools

and the UMBC Center for History Education.

U.S. Foreign Policy and the Iran-Contra Affair: Was Oliver North a Patriot,

a Pawn, or an Outlaw?

Author: Catherine Holden, Franklin High School, Baltimore County Public Schools

Grade Level: High

Duration of the History Lab: 90 Minutes


In 1984 and 1985, Hezbollah, a fundamentalist Shiite organization, with ties to the Iranian regime of Ayatollah Khomeini, abducted seven American citizens in Beirut, Lebanon. President Ronald Reagan denounced the Iranian government and urged Americans to refrain from selling any arms or goods to Iran. Despite strong rhetoric and a hard-line public stance against negotiating with terrorists, efforts were underway within the Reagan administration to secure the release of the American hostages. At the same time, Reagan was looking for a way to circumvent Congress and assist anti-Sandinista rebels (the Contras) in Nicaragua, in the name of protecting American interests and fighting Communism. In what became known as the Iran-Contra Affair, funds from arms sales to Iran were diverted through third parties to provide aid and military support to the Contras. In exchange, Iran agreed to broker the release of the hostages.

While questions linger about what was authorized and when, and what President Reagan knew, Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, a member of Reagan’s National Security Council, was an active and polarizing figure in the scandal that followed. In this History Lab, students are challenged to determine if North was a “patriot,” a “pawn,” or an “outlaw” in the Iran-Contra affair. They will examine and analyze hearing testimony, communications, and government reports to assess North’s role and legacy for themselves. In doing so they will gain an understanding of how developments in the Middle East and Latin America during the 1970s and 1980s created the environment in which the Iran-Contra scandal occurred.

History Standards National History Standards Era 10: Contemporary United States (1968 to the present) Standard 1: Recent developments in foreign and domestic politics Standard 1B: The student understands domestic politics in contemporary society  Analyze constitutional issues in the Iran-Contra affair Historical Thinking Standards Standard 5: Historical Issues-Analysis and Decision Making  Identify issues and problems in the past and analyze the interests, values, perspectives, and points of view of those involved in the situation  Evaluate alternative courses of action, keeping in mind the information available at the time, in terms of ethical considerations, the interests of those affected by the decision, and the longand short-term consequences of each Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

 Evaluate the implementation of a decision by analyzing the interest it served; estimating the position, power, and priority of each player involved; assessing the ethical dimensions of the decision; and evaluating its costs and benefits from a variety of perspectives Common Core State Standards: Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 6-12 Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Grades 11-12 Key Ideas and Details  Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.

 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.

 Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.

Craft and Structure  Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).

 Analyze in detail how a complex primary source is structured, including how key sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text contribute to the whole.

 Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas  Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.

 Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information.

 Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.

Maryland State Curriculum Standards for United States History Expectation: Students will demonstrate understanding of the cultural, economic, political and social developments from 1981 to the present.

Topic: A. America Impacts the World (1981-Present) Indicator 1. Analyze United States foreign policy from 1981 to the present (5.6.1).

Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

Purpose In this History Lab, students will consider U.S. foreign policy decisions in the Middle East and Latin America in the late 1970s and 1980s. They will look, in particular, at Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, a key figure of the Iran-Contra Affair during the Reagan presidency.

 Through analysis of primary sources, students will be able to construct and provide support for an historical interpretation of North’s role in the Iran-Contra Affair.

 Students will determine if Oliver North was acting as a patriot, a pawn or an outlaw.

Topic Background Between 1984 and 1985, seven Americans were abducted in Beirut, Lebanon by Hezbollah, a fundamentalist, Shiite terrorist organization with links to the Iranian regime of Ayatollah Khomeini.

President Ronald Reagan denounced the Iranian government and urged Americans to refrain from selling any arms or goods to Iran. In 1985, the United States Congress passed the International Security and Development Cooperation Act (ISDCA), which enabled the president to prohibit trade with any country supporting or harboring terrorists or terrorist organizations. The United States government appeared to take a hard stance publicly on terrorism in the Middle East. In the meantime, however, Reagan’s administration had already begun the process of selling weapons to Iran, using Israel as an intermediary, in an effort to secure the release of the hostages. In 1986, the arms for hostages deal turned into a major scandal in Washington and beyond. At a press conference on November 25, 1986, Reagan claimed he was “deeply troubled that the implementation of a policy aimed at resolving a truly tragic situation in the Middle East has resulted in such controversy.” Reagan said that he believed that his administration’s policy goals had been “well founded.” 1 In order to understand the rationale for the administration’s willingness to exchange weapons for hostages, it is necessary to understand the complexity of the growing tensions in Latin American and the Middle East in the late 1970s and early 1980s. During the Carter and Reagan Administrations, the number of communist-led and supported governments in Latin America and parts of the Middle East had increased. In countries such as Nicaragua and Afghanistan, communist governments had gained control. In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and supported the communist People’s Democratic Party.

In Iran, meanwhile, a homegrown revolution had overthrown the American-backed Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who fled to the United States. In 1979, Islamic cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini took total control of the government, with the goal of establishing an Islamic republic and ridding Iran of all Western influence. In an act of deliberate aggression against the United States, the new Islamic government captured and held 52 Americans in Tehran for 444 days.

Many historians agree that the inability of the Carter administration to resolve the crisis was instrumental in the election of Ronald Reagan as president in 1980. Negotiations were, in fact, secretly underway, but the release of the hostages did not occur until Reagan was sworn into office in January Educational materials developed through the Baltimore County History Labs Program, a partnership between Baltimore County Public Schools and the UMBC Center for History Education.

1981. The United States broke off relations with Iran and instituted a series of economic sanctions in an attempt to weaken the theocratic government.

In Latin America, the Sandinistas, a Marxist-socialist organization, took control of Nicaragua, challenging the Monroe Doctrine that had influenced American foreign policy in the Western hemisphere for decades. By the beginning of the 1980s, it appeared to the United States that communism and the Soviet Union were gaining momentum in the region, posing a threat to the United States.

In the 1984 election, Ronald Reagan won 49 of the 50 states in a landslide. In response to his mandate, Reagan enacted his own “Reagan Doctrine,” in which he proclaimed, “we must not break our faith with those who are risking their lives - on every continent from Afghanistan to Nicaragua - to defy Soviet aggression and secure rights which have been ours since birth…Support for freedom fighters is self defense.”2 Reagan’s defense of freedom fighters was indicative of his staunch anti-communist beliefs.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 |

Similar works:

«Associate Director for Operations P.O. Box 1663, A104 Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 Date: May 20, 2004 505-667-0079/Fax 505-665-1812 Refer To: ADO-Ops:04-051 Charles Miller Senior Scientist, NCEH/EHH Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road, NE Atlanta, GA 30333 Reference: Comments on the DRAFT Interim Report of the Los Alamos Historical Document Retrieval and Assessment (LAHDRA) Project Dear Dr. Miller: We appreciate the opportunity to review and comment on the subject...»

«1616796596 The Significant Other: a Literary History of Elves By Jenni Bergman Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Cardiff School of English, Communication and Philosophy Cardiff University UMI Number: U516593 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if...»

«Biographical Dictionary of Kansas Artists (active before 1945) Compiled by Susan V. Craig, Art & Architecture Librarian Univ. of Kansas Revised & Expanded Edition July 2009 Forward and Acknowledgements to the First Version, August 2006 This book began with a 1981 reference question about John Noble, a name I did not recognize despite having studied art history and worked as an art librarian for more than 10 years. Learning that John Noble was a Kansas artist, I went looking for the best...»

«Official Newsletter of Royal Australian Artillery Association of WA (Inc), RAA Historical Society of WA (Inc) Web Site: http://www.artillerywa.org.au Email: info@artillerywa.org.au Edition 1 / 16 March 2016 RAA FEAST of ST BARBARA 4 DECEMBER 2015 FIRE SUPPORT at Pozières July 1916 Page 1 of 14 Mark this dates in your calendars ANZAC DAY – 25 April 2016 March through Perth Form up time will be at 0900hrs. Please refer to The West Australian for location details for this year’s march. Please...»

«Cultural Competence GUIDELINES AND PROTOCOLS December 2006 Ethnic Communities’ Council of Victoria Inc. Statewide Resources Centre 150 Palmerston Street, Carlton VIC 3053 T 03 9349 4122 F 03 9349 4967 Cultural Competence GUIDELINES AND PROTOCOLS Cultural Competence GUIDELINES AND PROTOCOLS The Australian Context This document provides information and guidelines on cultural competence for anyone seeking to foster constructive interactions between members of different cultures. The combination...»

«VO Unfall, Desaster, Endzeit: Zukunftsvisionen in der Moderne 11.03.2014 Es gibt ein massives Interesse an diesem Thema, sowohl in den populären Medien wie Filmen als auch in PS und VO Teilnahme zu diesem Thema Auch im medialen Interesse wie Berichterstattung von Naturkatastrophen, gleichzeitig aber so ein Wegschieben. Vor allem beim Tsunami 2004 die Katastrophe vom Leibe gehalten aber gleichzeitig völlig begeistert von dem Thema – Katastrophengeil Begeistert an Zukunftsvisionen von einer...»

«Annals of My Glass House Julia Margaret Cameron, 1874 The Royal Photographic Society Collection at National Media Museum 2003-5001/4/22511 Annals of My Glass House Julia Margaret Cameron, 1874 ‘Mrs. Cameron’s Photography,’ now ten years old, has passed the age of lisping and stammering and may speak for itself, having travelled over Europe, America, and Australia, and met with a welcome which has given it confidence and power. Therefore, I think that the Annals of My Glass House will be...»

«Pirat Sockenfuß Ralf Scherlinzky Kapitel 1-9 PIRAT SOCKENFUß Ralf Scherlinzky (autor@pirat-sockenfuss.de) VORWORT Liebe Leserinnen und Leser, ich freue mich, dass Ihr nun endlich den „Pirat Sockenfuß“ in den Händen halten könnt. Die Figuren des Buches haben mich seit Sommer 2007 zweieinhalb Jahre beschäftigt – zugegebenermaßen immer wieder mal mit mehrmonatigen Pausen. Das Ganze hatte damals eigentlich damit begonnen, dass ich mit meinen Kindern Mika und Donna an einem Sonntag...»

«Rheinische Zeitung articles from the RHEINISCHE ZEITUNG History and Information on the Rheinische Zeitung NOTE: Dates are of publication in the paper, not the writing. Proceedings of the Sixth Rhine Province Assembly. q r First Article.: Debates on Freedom of the Press and Publication of the Proceedings of the Assembly for the Estates. May 5: First part s May 8: Second part s May 10: Third part s May 12: Fourth part s May 15: Fifth part s May 19: Sixth part s Second Article: Debates On the...»

«MAKING THE REVOLUTION: AMERICA, 1763-1791 PRIMARY SOURCE COLLECTION New York Public Library Benjamin Franklin James Madison George Washington Alexander Hamilton Henry Knox “a half-starv’d, limping Government” * Founders on the Defects of the ARTICLES of CONFEDERATION 1780-1787 _ LETTERS (EXCERPTS) Written in 1776 to create a wartime government, the Articles of Confederation have come down in history as a grand failure, finally ditched and replaced by the now long-lived U.S. Constitution....»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.dislib.info - Free e-library - Books, dissertations, abstract

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.