FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, dissertations, abstract

Pages:     | 1 || 3 | 4 |   ...   | 6 |

«by LINDA NOCHLIN While the recent upsurge of feminist activity in this country has indeed been a liberating one, its force has been chiefly ...»

-- [ Page 2 ] --

It is when one really starts thinking about the implications of "Why have there been no great women artists?" that one begins to realize to what extent our consciousness of how things are in the world has been conditioned--and often falsified--by the way the most important questions are posed. We tend to take it for granted that there really is an East Asian Problem, a Poverty Problem, a Black Problem--and a Woman Problem. But first we must ask ourselves who is formulating these "questions," and then, what purposes such formulations may serve. (We may, of course, refresh our memories with the connotations of the Nazis' "Jewish Problem.") Indeed, in our time of instant communication, "problems" are rapidly formulated to rationalize the bad conscience of those with power: thus, the problem posed by Americans in Vietnam and Cambodia is referred to by Americans as the "East Asian Problem, " whereas East Asians may view it, more realistically, as the "American Problem"; the so-called Poverty Problem might more directly be viewed as the "Wealth Problem" by denizens of urban ghettos or rural wastelands; the same irony twists the White Problem into its opposite, a Black Problem; and the same inverse logic turns up in the formulation of our present state of affairs as the "Woman Problem. " Now, the "Woman Problem," like all human problems, so-called (and the very idea of calling anything to do with human beings a "problem" is, of course, a fairly recent one), is not amenable to "solution" at all, since what human problems involve is reinterpretation of the nature of the situation, or a radical alteration of stance or program on the part of the "problems" themselves. Thus, women and their situation in the arts, as in other realms of endeavor, are not a "problem" to be viewed through the eyes of the dominant male power elite.

Instead, women must conceive of themselves as potentially, if not actually, equal subjects, and must be willing to look the facts of their situation full in the face, without self-pity, or cop-outs; at the same time they must view their situation with that high degree of emotional and intellectual commitment necessary to create a world in which equal achievement will be not only made possible but actively encouraged by social institutions.

It is certainly not realistic to hope that a majority of men, in the arts or in any other field, will soon see the light and find that it is in their own self-interest to grant complete equality to women, as some feminists optimistically assert, or to maintain that men themselves will soon realize that they are diminished by denying themselves access to traditionally "feminine" realms and emotional reactions. After all, there are few areas that are really "denied" to men, if the level of operations demanded be transcendent, responsible, or rewarding enough: men who have a need for "feminine" involvement with babies or children gain status as pediatricians or child psychologists, with a nurse (female) to do the more routine work; those who feel the urge for kitchen creativity may gain fame as master chefs; and of course, men who yearn to fulfill themselves through what are often termed "feminine" artistic interests can find themselves as painters or sculptors, rather than as volunteer museum aides or part-time ceramists, as their female counterparts so often end up doing; as far as scholarship is concerned, how many men would be willing to change their jobs as teachers and researchers for those of unpaid, part-time research assistants and typists as well as full-time nannies and domestic workers?

Those who have privileges inevitably hold on to them, and hold tight, no matter how marginal the advantage involved, until compelled to bow to superior power of one sort or another.

Thus, the question of women's equality--in art as in any other realm--devolves not upon the relative benevolence or ill-will of individual men, nor the selfconfidence or abjectness of individual women, but rather on the very nature of our institutional structures themselves and the view of reality which they impose on the human beings who are part of them. As John Stuart Mill pointed out more than a century ago: "Everything which is usual appears natural. The subjection of wom en to men being a universal custom, any departure from it quite naturally appears unnatural." Most men, despite lip service to equality, are reluctant to give up this "natural" order of things in which their advantages are so great; for women, the case is further complicated by the fact that, as Mill astutely pointed out, unlike any other oppressed groups or castes, men demand of them not only submission but unqualified affection as well; thus, women are often weakened by the internalized demands of the male-dominated society itself, as well as by a plethora of material goods and comforts: the middle-class woman has a great deal more to lose than her chains.

The question "Why have there been no great women artists?" is ismply the top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of shaky idees recues about the nature of art and its situational concomitants, about the nature of human abilities in general and of human excellence in particular, and the role that the social order plays in all of this.

While the "woman problem" as such may be a pseudo-issue, the misconceptions involved in the question "Why have there been no great women artists?" points to major areas of intellectual obfuscation beyond the specific political and ideological issues involved in the subjection of women. Basic to the question are many naive, distorted, uncritical assumptions about the making of art in general, as well as the making of great art. These assumptions, conscious or unconscious, link such unlikely superstars as Michelangelo and van Gogh, Raphael and Jackson Pollock under the rubric of "Great"--an honorific--attested to by the number of scholarly monographs devoted to the artist in question--and the Great Artist is, of course, conceived of as one who has "Genius"; Genius, in turn, is thought of as an atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in the person of the Great Artist. Such ideas are related to unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises that make Hippolyte Taine's race-milieu-moment formulation of the dimensions of historical thought seem a model of sophistication. But these assumptions are intrinsic to a great deal of art-historical writing. It is no accident that the crucial question of the conditions generally productive of great art has so rarely been investigated, or that attempts to investigate such general problems have, until fairly recently, been dismissed as unscholarly, too broad, or the province of some other discipline, like sociology. To encourage a dispassionate, impersonal, sociological, and institutionally oriented approach would reveal the entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying, and monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of art history is based, and which has only recently been called into question by a group of younger dissidents.

Underlying the question about woman as artist, then, we find the myth of the Great Artist--subject of a hundred monographs, unique, godlike--bearing within his person since birth a mysterious essence, rather like the golden nugget in Mrs. Grass's chicken soup, called Genius or Talent, which, like murder, must always out, no matter how unlikely or unpromising the circumstances.

The magical aura surrounding the representational arts and their creators has, of course, given birth to myths since the earliest times. Interestingly enough, the same magical abilities attributed by Pliny to the Greek sculptor Lysippos in antiquity--the mysterious inner call in early youth, the lack of any teacher but Nature herself--is repeated as late as the 19th century by Max Buchon In his biography of Courbet. The supernatural powers of the artist as Imitator, his control of strong, possibly dangerous powers, have functioned historically to set him off from others as a godlike creator, one who creates Being out of nothing. The fairy tale of the discovery by an older artist or discerning patron of the Boy Wonder, usually in the guise of a lowly shepherd boy, has been stock-in-trade of artistic mythology ever since Vasari immortaized the young Glotto, discovered by the great Cimabue while the lad was guarding his flocks, drawing sheep on a stone; Cimabue, overcome admiration for the realism of the drawing, immediately invited the humble youth to be his pupil. Through some mysterious coincidence, later artists including Beccafumi, Andrea Sansovino, Andrea del Castagno, Mantegna, Zurbarfin, and Goya were all discovered in similar pastoral circumstances. Even when the young Great Artist was fortunate enough to come equipped with a flock of sheep, his talent always seems to have

manifested itself very early, and independent of external encouragement:

Filippo Lippi and Poussin, Courbet and Monet are all reported to have drawn caricatures in the margins of their schoolbooks instead of studying the required subjects--we never, course, hear about the youths who neglected their studies and scribbled in the margins of their notebooks without ever becoming anything more elevated than department-store clerks or shoe salesmen. The great Michelangelo himself, according to his biographer and pupil, Vasari, did more drawing than studying as a child. So pronounced was his talent, reports Vasari, that when his master, Ghirlandaio, absented himself momentarily from his work in Santa Maria Novella, and the young art student took the opportunity to draw "the scaffolding, trestles, pots of paint, brushes and the apprentices at their tasks" in this brief absence, he did it so skillfully that upon his return the master aimed: "This boy knows more than I do."

As is so often the case, such stories, which probably have some Even when based on fact, these myths about the early manifestations of genius are misleading. It is no doubt true, for example, that the young Picasso passed all the examinations for entrance to the Barcelona and later to the Madrid, Academy of Art at the age of fifteen in a single day, a feat of such difficulty that most candidates required a month of preparation. But one would like to find out more about similar precocious qualifiers for art academies who then went on to achieve nothing but mediocrity or failure--in whom, of course, art historians are uninterested--or to study in greater detail the role played by Picasso's art professor father in the pictorial precocity of his son.

What if Picasso had been born a girl? Would Senor Ruiz have paid as much attention or stimulated as much ambition for achievement in a little Pablita?

What is stressed in all these stories is the apparently miraculous, nondetermined, and asocial nature of artistic achievement; this semi-religious conception of the artist's role is elevated to hagiography in the 19th century, when art historians, critics, and, not least, some of making of the artists themselves tended to elevate the making of art into a substitute religion, the last bulwark of higher values in a materialistic world. The artists in the 19t-century Saints' Legend, struggles against the most determined parental and social opposition, suffering the slings and arrows of social opprobrium like any Christian martyr, and ultimately succeeds against all odds-generally, alas, after his death-because from deep within himself radiates that mysterious, holy effulgence: Genius.

Here we have the mad van Gogh, spinning out sunflowers despite epileptic seizures and near-starvation; Cezanne, braving paternal rejection and public scorn in order to revolutionize painting; Gauguin, throwing away respectability and financial security with a single existential gesture to pursue his calling in the tropics; or Toulouse-Lautrec, dwarfed, crippled, and alcoholic, sacrificing his aristocratic birthright in favor of the squalid surroundings that provided him with inspiration.

Pages:     | 1 || 3 | 4 |   ...   | 6 |

Similar works:

«THE SOUTH CAUCASUS AND TURKEY: HISTORY LESSONS OF THE 20TH CENTURY The South Caucasus and Turkey: History Lessons of the 20th Century Publisher: Heinrich Böll Foundation South Caucasus Regional Office Editor in Chief: Sergey Rumyantsev © Heinrich Böll Foundation South Caucasus Regional Office, 2012a 38, Zovreti st., Tbilisi 0160, Georgia T +995 32 238 04 67/68, +995 32 291 37 39 | F +995 32 291 28 97 E info@ge.boell.org | W www.ge.boell.org | F www.facebook.com/hbf.caucasus ISBN...»

«Publications Assoc.Prof. Dr. Dr. Helmut Lukas 2014 Joachim Freiherr Brenner von Felsach (1859-1927). Österreichischer Weltreisender, Forscher und Erfinder. In German: Joachim Freiherr Brenner von Felsach (1859-1927). Austrian Globetrotter, Explorer, and Inventor In: In: Österreich: Geschichte Literatur – Geographie (ÖGL), 58. Jahrgang, Heft 4 (381), December 2014, pp. 423-442. 2014 Was hat Kannibalismus mit Tourismus zu tun? Streifzug durch die Geschichte des Kannibalismustopos am...»

«President’s Institutional Diversity Council 2010-11 Report Introduction Will Johnson, associate dean of student/director of student diversity programs, Dr. Renee White, professor of sociology and academic coordinator for diversity and global citizenship (September 2010 thru May 2011) and Dr. Danke Li, associate professor of history (May 2011 thru present) served as the Council’s co-chairs. The Council’s charge was: To consider the evolving impact of diversity on and within the Fairfield...»


«1 origins of the arthurian legends The Origins of the Arthurian Legend geoffrey ashe After prolonged debate, the search for the ‘historical Arthur’ remains inconclusive, because of the nature of the evidence which historians take into account. Possibilities arise, however, from evidence of another kind. Literary inquiry can lead towards historical insight and identify an Arthurfigure who has been noticed at various times, but not adequately considered. (GA) T o the question ‘Did Arthur...»

«An Overview of the Ottoman Archival Documents and Chronicles Osmanlı Arşiv Belgeleri ve Kroniklerinin Genel Bir Değerlendirmesi M. Mehdi lhan* Abstract Both Ottoman chronicles and archival documents are equally valuable for Ottoman Studies. The scholars, particularly the historians starting with Mustafa Nuri Paşa, a nineteenth century Ottoman historian, have been well aware of this fact. A systematic work on Ottoman chronicles and archival documents started with the foundation of Ottoman...»

«InternatIonale Konferenz | InternatIonal ConferenCe Opfer und Orte von „Vergeltungsaktionen“ in den besetzten Gebieten Europas Victims and Sites of Reprisals in German-occupied Europe 28. April, 12.30 Uhr bis 30. April 2015, 14.00 Uhr 28 April 2015, 12.30 p.m. to 30 April 2015, 2.00 p.m. Veranstalter | Organiser: KZ-Gedenkstätte Neuengamme, in Kooperation mit der Forschungsstelle für Zeitgeschichte in Hamburg und dem Institut für die Geschichte der deutschen Juden Förderer | Sponsor:...»

«Heike Lubatsch Pflegeethik Definition und Geschichte Pflege versteht sich als fürsorgliche Betreuung und Versorgung hilfsbedürftiger Menschen. Seit Mitte der 90er Jahre des 20. Jahrhunderts etablierte sich in Deutschland Pflege als ‚Pflegewissenschaft‘. Damit stellte sich auch wissenschaftlich die Frage, was eine gute Pflegekraft auszeichnet und wie es mit der Ethik in diesem Berufsfeld steht. Der International Council of Nurses (ICN), der Weltbund der professionell Pflegenden, hat...»

«Running head: HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF OLYMPIC COMMERCIALISM 1 The Evolution of Attitudes towards Commercialism Within the American Olympic Movement: A Historical Perspective Jonathan A. Jensen, Ph.D. Final Report, International Olympic Committee (IOC) Olympic Studies Centre 2015 PhD Students Research Grant Programme Keywords: Olympic Games, Sport Sponsorship, Licensing, TOP, Ambush Marketing, Television, 1984 Olympic Games. Abstract: The uneasy relationship between the long-standing amateur...»

«Indigenous Articulations James Clifford L’indépendence, c’est de bien calculer les interdépendences. jean-marie tjibaou New Caledonia is a rather long island, about three hundred miles end to end, and never more than fifty miles wide. Its spine is mountainous, with transverse valleys running to the sea. In 1850 about thirty distinct language groups occupied these separate valleys—a classic western Pacific social ecology. A century and a half later much has changed. New Caledonia is a...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.dislib.info - Free e-library - Books, dissertations, abstract

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.