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«In-Vitro Design Protocol: Artificial Situation Strategy Uses to Comprehend Designers’ Thought Rusmadiah Anwar1,3,a, ShahrimanZainal Abidin1,2 and ...»

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MATEC Web of Conferences 52, 0 3 0 0 2 (2016 )

DOI: 10.1051/ m atecconf/ 201652 0 30 0 2

C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016

In-Vitro Design Protocol: Artificial Situation Strategy Uses to

Comprehend Designers’ Thought

Rusmadiah Anwar1,3,a, ShahrimanZainal Abidin1,2 and Oskar Hasdinor Hassan3

Formgiving Design Research Group, Faculty of Art & Design, UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia

Research Innovation Business Unit, UniversitiTeknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia Department of Industrial Ceramic, Faculty of Art & Design, UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia Abstract.The challenge of current trends in design research and point out some of their activities, such as the gap between aesthetic and technical need, and the chasm between ambiguous and quantified in design practice. So, it is hard to surprise the product designers fail to combine a systematical methodology in analyzing design activity. This paper will assess the comprehensible and abilities of In-Vitro Design Protocol (IVDP) in mapping and analyzing design activities. This paper thus attempts to provide a systematic design investigation to researcher and discuss a few key demands on such foundation, include the capture and monitoring used for observational studies in artificial environment strategy.

1 Introduction Recording design activity among creative designer through video becoming more popular, and define as primary field materials that treat as collecting inquiry data [1] [2]. Even this empirical research has widely practiced among psychologist include engineering designer, it is, however, difficult to find related research involve a kind of research in art and design practices. The interesting about this evidence-based data is, it allowed us to investigate the design thought among chosen subjects empirically. It also brings a mystery outcome during the experiment, which unexpected before. In Valkenburg's recorded videotape and written transcript has shocked by the amount of incomprehension design content among the subjects [3]. If a kind of systematic design methodology such engineering can bring unexpected results, we believed, more intuition design thought from creative designer could be captured and recorded through empirical research. Giving great design behavior and the knowledge gap to be described, particularly in the early phase (the design activity) of any industrial design practices. Where in this stages, the form of a product is poorly supported, mostly at the stage of conceptual [4]. To select a valuable conceptual design, the solution searching process should begin with a divergent until convergence step [5-7].

Conventional models by Cross describe a traditional design process attempt to build prescriptive models of the design process [8]. Cross mostly disagrees with the generation of solution concept identified by these existing models and discovered plenty of examples of the excellent solution provided in a wrong direction. Therefore, Cross suggests an essential structure to the design process of analysis-synthesis-evaluation that not followed the conventional design practice. It was emphasizing a Corresponding author : rusma935@salam.uitm.edu.my



MATEC Web of Conferences on the performance specifications logical derived from the design problem, generating several alternative design concepts by building-up the best sub-solution and making a rational choice of the best alternative design. This process has same interpretation with “goal-oriented problem-solving activity” [9]. It defines as ‘the goal’ plays a huge influence any goal-oriented activities. Therefore, the success of any design development depends on the particular establishment at the beginning of the ‘real’ project goals. Consequently, completeness of design depends on the ability to introduce the legitimate objectives. In a similar point of view, Pugh define that industry was aware of ‘total design’;

“the systematic activity necessary for the identification of the market/user need, to the selling of the successful product to satisfy that need an activity that encompasses product, process, people and organization” [10].

2 A review of design research related to design activity Design research is systematic inquiry whose goal is knowledge of, or in, the embodiment of configuration, composition, structure, purpose, value, and meaning in man-made things and systems [11]. However, in current art and design practice, there has been increasing debate about research as a discipline in art and design [12]. Neither artist nor designer is regularly undertaking formal research based on existing research method from any Physical and Social Sciences. Conversely, it does not convey to any of process correctly. Do the art activity (painting, sculpture, printmaking, etc.) involves ‘design’ or, any design development include ‘art’ (color, line proportion, scale, etc.) in the practice? It is the nature of art and design and becoming one of the topics for such debates. However, industrial design is not art, craft or engineering; it has it own purpose, values, measures and procedure [13].

Looking at design research from the design methodology and design science perspectives in a sense for such topic, it is principally (five elements of design research) tries to answer the obligation of design to the humanities [14]. It shows that design research only focuses in comprehending the methodology, thus, metaphor structure is neglected and overlooked. The reasons Bayazit describe the elements in design research as his disagreement with the art, craft and design people call what they do for art and design “research.” Practicing activities when creating a work of art or craft cannot be considered research [14]. However, somehow rather, he agrees that the observable phenomena are the research gap for the external observer to do research into how an artist is working with their creative works.

In our point of view, most of the design activity traditionally is sketch neither line nor form, the construction can totally consider as “research,” especially when the activity involves design process.

Design-inspire approaches are crucial in the form development process [15]. Designers generate metaphors by captivating attributes from one or more entity before transforming it to product [16].

These inspirations could come from new ideas from designer’s previous knowledge and experiences [17]. Designers use metaphor as a strategic approach to design activity [18] in which, metaphors is one of the mechanisms that permits the well-known mental imagery of subjective experiences and judgments based on general experiences that could be neutrally linked [19]. The metaphorical element is important, as it frequently serves as ways in stimulating designer’s creativity in the design process.

As an artifact that reveals something insightful, conceptual metaphors are used in relating the connotation of separated entities to be conveyed and comprehended, thus allowing creativity during form development of a product [16]. The metaphors also contribute in assisting in different thinking by bridging different domains in design problem solving [20-21].

To make possible for an external observer able to do research into how the artist or “creative” [22designer’s thinks, we use an image to create the link (especially on the meaning) between ideas.

The interpretations of design research as defined [14],inclusive with a visual metaphor we have suggested are summarized in Figure 1. Tea brewing machine choose as subject to link with Cross’s three main categories that involve design research with people, process, and product [24]. The coherent examples of tea brewing machine have employed successively in examining the two structure variation methods [25]. This variation of relative arrangement defines as ‘quantified structure’ offer a final choice of criteria looked-for by considering the most promising structure [26].

–  –  –

Figure 1. Designer’s strategic metaphor design language linked to design research.

3 Organizing in-vitro design protocol as investigation format strategy As per discussed in Section 2, design grows as a discipline with its research base and Cross believe, there will be a growth in the number of emerging designer-researchers. To devise an appropriate standard or addition to a methodology, it is necessary to identify the ‘designerly’ ways of knowing, thinking and acting [24]. However, there is no coherent theory exist in current literature about characteristics of metaphorical form in product design embedded based on the representation of mind

by designers’ from the perspective of Islamic influences. Thus, it become an advantages of this study:

(i) to uncover how designers interpret metaphorical form based on Islamic influences, (ii) to understand the influence of incremental, radical design that changes respective to preceding designs, and (iii) to confirm the similarities of characteristics of metaphorical form representation in the context of syntactic that can be generalized as a brand and identity for Islamic product design. We suggest in-vitro design protocol (IVDP) to investigate the existence of metaphorical understanding instead of structure principal during design development. A video observation based on protocol design analysis of designer sketching activities by practitioners conducted and strengthened by a semistructured interview with an expert on the evaluation of selected product architecture in the analysis of representation concerning metaphorical form syntactic in design. The following steps will describe the fragmentation of activity as the primary structure for this IVDP.

03002-p.3 MATEC Web of Conferences STEP 1: Understanding of design taxonomy (the task).Designers may sketch only to a partial degree (“completeness”) in metaphorical form process. How, then, are elements metaphorical form by designers on completeness? [27]. This question close to the design models summarize by Blessing through the typology of design models as stage-based and activity-based [28], which realized the models that concerned with morphological and problem-solving dimension. Furthermore, the model prescribing well-structure activities within stagesand signify to convergence on a design solution where concrete activities within a stage used progressively [28]. The models presented will be as a benchmark for the comprehensively understand the design thought during the experiment.

STEP 2: Time framing (the design abstraction limitation). Even though the typology of design model able to describe the potential convergence to a design solution, designer (after this call ‘subject’) involves in this IVDP been control by time duration. The task given is to identify as much as solution ideas as possible. Including the selecting multiple choices of ideas that should be considered during design activity [29]. As design activity classified and not think as research due to the demanding reasonable research outcomes while performing an artwork or design work, we decide to bring a “short-term memory” (STM) in this design protocol. The reason to carry STM in IVDP is to investigate how possible the data inquiry during design activity is constructed in a short period. It will be a part of completing goal-targeted action among designers. Tjalve rationalizes the search for examination of solution, evaluation and choice of shows in the theory of search for and examination of solution, evaluation and choice as the characteristic sequence in product synthesis [26].

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