«ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF ATTITUDE TOWARD WORKS, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT, AND JOB SATISFACTION, ON EMPLOYEE’S JOB PERFORMANCE (Case Study in ...»
PP. 15 – 24
European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 10, pp 15-24, January 2013.
ISSN: 2235 -767X
ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF ATTITUDE TOWARD WORKS,
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT, AND JOB SATISFACTION,
ON EMPLOYEE’S JOB PERFORMANCE
(Case Study in Electronic Company) Aries Susanty Rizqi Miradipta Program Study Teknik Industri, Universitas Diponegoro Program Study Teknik Industri, Universitas Diponegoro Jl. Prof. Soedarto, S.H, Tembalang, Semarang, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, S.H, Tembalang, Semarang, firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Ferry Jie College of Business, RMIT University, Australia firstname.lastname@example.org
The results of this study showed that attitude towards work have positive but not significant effect to job satisfaction and employee performance. Different with attitude towards work, the organization's commitment has positive and significant effect on job satisfaction and
1. Introduction Employee’s job performance has been defined as work performance in terms of quantity and quality expected from each employee (Khan et al, 2010). With increase in competition, firms have recognized the importance of the employee’s job performance to compete in this global market because as the performance of the employees increases, it will affect firm’s performance and ultimately profitability of the firm.
As a result of “pressure to perform”, the worth of satisfied employees becomes more indispensable. Job satisfaction describes that how much happy an individual is with his/her job. According to Locke (1976) job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job and job experiences. The happier the individual, the higher is level of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction not only depends on the nature of the job, it also depends on the expectation what’s the job supply to an employee (Al-Hussami, 2008). Job satisfaction is a complex phenomenon with multi facets (Xie and Johns, 2000); according to Linz (2002), job satisfaction is influenced by attitudes toward work and organizational commitment. It is assumed that positive attitude towards work and greater organizational commitment increases job satisfaction which in return enhances performance of the individual (Linz, 2002).
Attitude is termed as a hypothetical construct that represents an individual’s like or dislike for any behavior (Mowday, Porter, and Steers 1982 in Ahmad et al, 2010 ). Allport (1935) defined an attitude as a mental or neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence on the individual’s response to all objects and situations to which it is related. A simpler definition of attitude is a mindset or a tendency to act in a particular way due to both an individual’s experience and temperament.
How people behave at work often depends on how it feels about being there. Therefore, making sense of how people behave depends on understanding their work attitudes.
Organizational commitment is a feeling of dedication to one’s employing organization, willingness to work hard for that employer, and the intent to remain with that organization (Meyer and Allen, 1988). According to Raju and Srivastava in the year 1994, organizational commitment as the factor that promotes the attachment of the individual to the organization. Employees are regarded as committed to an organization if they willingly continue their association with the organization and devote considerable effort to achieving organizational goals. The high levels of effort exerted by employees with high levels of organizational commitment would lead to higher levels of performance and effectiveness of both the individual and the organizational level (Sharma and Bajpai, 2010).
Related to the employee’s job performance, as one of the electronic company in Indonesia, PT. X wants to know how much the effect given by following factors, i.e. attitude toward work, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction, toward their employee’s performance. Curiosity of PT. X was based on the results of an assessment of their employee’s performance which was demonstrating a number of employees who still have low performance. Employees who performed very well only 4.00%, employees who performed good only 73.90%, employees who performed enough 20.10%, while the employees who performed poorly was 2.00%. The factor which is having great impact on the employee's performance of PT. X will be become the most important factor to improved seriously by the Human Resource Division.
Based on the condition that was faced by PT. X and the previous theory about the relationship between attitude toward work, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and employee’s performance, specifically this study aim to explain and empirically test the effect of attitude toward work, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment to the employee’s job performance at PT. X.
2. Literature Review The literature shows a positive relationship between attitude towards work, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction. Literature also shows a positive relationship between job satisfaction and employee’s job performance. This study refers to the conceptual model of previous research belong to Ahmad et al (2010).
Unlike the previous literature from Ahmad et al (2010), this study didn’t see the relationship between job
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND SOCIAL SCIENCESPP. 15 – 24 satisfaction and employee’s job performance as two factors or variables that have a reciprocal relationship.
In this study, job satisfaction only has a positive effect on an employee’s job performance and not vice versa. It is because, this study only focused to see some factors or variables that affecting the employee’s job performance.
2.1 Attitude Toward Works, Job Satisfaction, and Employee’s Job Performance Attitude towards works are the feelings we have toward different aspects of the work environment (Carpeter et al, 2009). According to him, there are some element which influencing the attitude towards works, namely personality, person-environment fit, job characteristics, psychological contract, organizational justice, work relationship, and stress.
Arguments that support attitude towards works cause performance usually refer to the functions of attitudes as guidelines and facilitators of behavior (see the research that conducted by Fishbein and Ajzen in the year 1974; Eagly and Chaiken in the year 1993; or Judge et al in the year 2001); or refer to the functions of attitudes as the energizing and facilitative effects of positive affect (as one component of satisfaction) at the workplace (see the research that conducted by Staw et al in the year 1994); or refer to the functions of attitudes as the motivational effects of the personal importance or identification with the job or organization (e.g., as a component or consequence of commitment; see the research that conducted by Meyer, Becker, and Vandenberghe in the year 2004) (Riketta, 2008).
2.2 Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Employee’s Job Performance Organizational commitment is defined as the emotional bond or attachment between staff and their firm (Meyer and Allen, 1997; O’Reilly and Chatman, 1986). Mowda, Porter, and Steers (1979) defined organizational commitment as the relative strength of an individual’s identity within a particular organization. They describe organizational commitment as “the relative strength of an individual’s identification with and involvement in a particular organization. That can be characterized by three elements: (i) a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values, (ii) a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization, and (iii) a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization.
Tai et al (1998) observed that Organizational Commitment and Job satisfaction are highly correlated. There are two opinions that related to the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction.
The first opinion, job satisfaction is a significant predictor of organizational commitment and the second opinion, organizational commitment is a significant predictor of job satisfaction. LaLopa (1997) and Dienhart and Gregoire (1993) were some of the researcher that supported the first opinion. According to LaLopa (1997), job satisfaction is a significant predictor of organizational commitment. In line with Lalopa, Dienhart and Gregoire (1993) revealed that many studies use different facets of satisfaction to predict employee attributes such as performance, organizational commitment, and service quality. Different with LaLopa (1997) and Dienhart and Gregoire (1993), research that conducted by Markovits et al (2007) suggested that affective organizational commitment was found to be most influential with respect to levels of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. In line with research that's conducted by Markovits et al (2007), research that conducted by Sharma and Bajpai (2010) and Adeloka (2012) also suggested that organizational commitment is being proven as the catalyst for enhancing the job satisfaction level of employees. So, Markovits et al (2007), Sharma and Bajpai (2010), and Adeloka (2012) were some of the researcher that supported the second opinion.
Beside impact on job satisfaction, many researchers have carried out various studies to examine the relationship between organizational commitment and employee’s job performance. The findings of the previous studies have given varied results. Some have found a positive relationship between organizational commitment and performance (e.g. research that conducted by Bashaw and Grant in 1994, Kalleberg and Marden in 1995, Benkhoff in 1997, Suliman and Laws in 2000 and Meyer et al in 2002), while others have
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND SOCIAL SCIENCESPP. 15 – 24 examined very weak, negative or insignificant relationship between the two (e.g. research that conducted by Leong et al in 1994, Wright in 1997, and Mathieu and Zajac, 1990. According to Benkhoff in 1997, this variation in results is due to the way commitment has been conceptualized (Qaisar, et al, 2012).
2.3 Job Satisfaction and Employee’s Job Performance Refers to a study conducted by Ahmad et al (2010), variable of job satisfaction is measured from the level of satisfaction of employees working in the company and the absence of the desire of the employees to leave the company. There were a complex relation between job satisfaction and performance. In 1930’s some researchers were emphasized on their relationship and they were studied seriously at the notion that a happy worker is a productive worker. At that time it showed a weak and somehow a negative relationship between them, but Iaffaldano and Muchinsky (1985) were proved that there was a correlation between job performance and job satisfaction and the value of the correlation was about 0.170. In recent year, research was done by Yi in 2008, Zimmerman and Todd in 2009, Chen and Colin in 2008, and Lee, Javalgi, and Olivia in 2010 confirmed a positive relation between job satisfaction and job performance (Dizgah et al, 2012).