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«DIREC TIONS IN DE VELOPMENT Human Development Public Disclosure Authorized The Cash Dividend The Rise of Cash Transfer Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa ...»

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Posel, Dori, James Fairburn, and Frances Lund. 2006. “Labour Migration and Households: A Reconsideration of the Effects of the Social Pension on Labour Supply in South Africa.” Economic Modelling 23 (5): 836–53.

“Productive Safety Nets Programme in Ethiopia: The Public Works Component.” n.d. PowerPoint presentation, World Bank, Washington, DC.

PRP (Protracted Relief Programme). 2011. “About PRP.” PRP, Harare. http:// www.prpzim.info/default/default.cfm?linkid=1&CFID=10064608&CFTOK EN=72819016#.

344 The Cash Dividend “Q&A: Child Cash Grants Programme.” 2008. UNICEF, Lesotho.

Republic of Namibia. 2007. Namibia National Plan of Action for Orphans and Vulnerable Children. Vol. 1. Windhoek: Ministry of Gender Equality and Child Welfare.

Republic of Rwanda. 2009. “Vision 2020 Umurenge Programme (VUP): Direct Support Operational Framework and Procedure Manual.” Ministry of Local Government, Good Governance, Community Development, and Social Affairs, Kigali.

RHVP (Regional Hunger and Vulnerability Programme). 2007a. “Old Age and Public Assistance Grants, Swaziland.” REBA Case Study Brief 6, Regional Evidence Building Agenda, RHVP, Johannesburg.

———. 2007b. “Zimbabwe: Summary Data on Social Protection Schemes.” RHVP, Johannesburg.

———. 2009. “Impact of Social Cash Transfers on Household Welfare, Investment, and Education in Zambia.” Wahenga Brief 17, RHVP, Johannesburg. http:// www.wahenga.net/node/223.

RNA (RuralNet Associates). 2007. “Case Study on the Chipata and Kazungula Social Cash Transfer Schemes by CARE International.” Regional Hunger and Vulnerability Programme, Johannesburg.

Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel, and Stephen Devereux. 2010. “Cash Transfers and High Food Prices: Explaining Outcomes on Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Programme.” Food Policy 35 (4): 274–85.

Samson, Michael. 2007.“African Perspectives on Cash Transfers:The Developmental Impact of Social Transfers.” PowerPoint presentation at the Africa Regional Workshop on Cash Transfer Programmes for Vulnerable Groups, Mombasa, Kenya, February 26–28.

Samson, Michael, and Shesangai Kaniki. 2008. “Social Pensions as Developmental Social Security for Africa.” Poverty in Focus 15 (August): 22–23.

Samson, Michael, Una Lee, Asanda Ndlebe, Kenneth Mac Quene, Ingrid van Niekerk, Viral Gandhi, Tomoko Harigaya, and Celeste Abrahams. 2004. The Social and Economic Impact of South Africa’s Social Security System. Cape Town, South Africa: Economic Policy Research Institute.

SASSA (South African Social Security Agency). 2009. “Statistical Report on Social Grants.” Report 17, Strategy and Business Development Branch, Monitoring and Evaluation Department, SASSA, Pretoria.

Save the Children UK. 2009. How Cash Transfers Can Improve the Nutrition of the Poorest Children: Evaluation of a Pilot Safety Net Project in Southern Niger.

London: Save the Children.

Schubert, Bernd. 2003. “Social Welfare Interventions for AIDS Affected Households in Zambia.” German Agency for Technical Cooperation, Lusaka.

Detailed Reviews of Sub-Saharan Africa’s Cash Transfer Programs 345 ———. 2007a. “Manual of Operations for the Malawi Pilot Social Cash Transfer Scheme.” United Nations Children’s Fund, Lilongwe.

———. 2007b. “Piloting the Scale Up of the Malawi Social Cash Transfer Scheme (Fifth Report: January–June 2007).” United Nations Children’s Fund, Lilongwe.

———. 2009. “Targeting Social Cash Transfers: The Process of Defining Target Groups and the Targeting Mechanism for the Malawi Social Cash Transfer Scheme.” Regional Hunger and Vulnerability Programme, Johannesburg.

Schubert, Bernd, and Mayke Huijbregts. 2006. “The Malawi Social Cash Transfer Pilot Scheme, Preliminary Lessons Learned.” Presented at the conference on Social Protection Initiatives for Children, Women, and Families: An Analysis of Recent Experiences, New York, October 30–31.

Schüring, Esther. 2010. “Strings Attached or Loose Ends? The Role of Conditionality in Zambia’s Social Cash Transfer Scheme.” Maastricht Graduate School of Governance, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Sharp, Kay, Taylor Brown, and Amdissa Teshome. 2006. Targeting Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP). Addis Ababa: Overseas Development Institute, IDL Group, and A-Z Capacity Building Consult.

Slater, Rachel, Steve Ashley, Mulugeta Tefera, Mengistu Buta, and Delelegne Esubalew. 2006. “PSNP Policy, Programme, and Institutional Linkages.” Overseas Development Institute, IDL Group UK, and Indak International, London.

Soares, Fábio Veras, Guilherme Issamu Hirata, and Rafael Rivas. n.d. “The Programa Subsidio de Alimentos in Mozambique: Baseline Evaluation.” International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, Brasília.

Soares, Fábio Veras, and Clarissa Teixeira. 2010. “Impact Evaluation of the Expansion of the Food Subsidy Programme in Mozambique.” Research Brief 17, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, Brasília.

South African Government Services. 2009. “Social Services.” South African Government Services, Pretoria. http://www.services.gov.za/.

Streak, Judith. 2007. “Brief Overview of Cash Transfer System in South Africa and Introduction to HSRC Going to Scale Research Project.” PowerPoint presentation at the Africa Regional Workshop on Cash Transfer Programmes for Vulnerable Groups, Mombasa, Kenya, February 26–28.





Sultan, Sonya M., and Tamar T. Schrofer. 2008. “Building Support to Have Targeted Social Protection Interventions for the Poorest: The Case of Ghana.”

Presented at the Conference on Social Protection for the Poorest in Africa:

Learning from Experience, Kampala, September 8–10.

Tandeo, Andrew. 2005. “Internal Monitoring System: Summary Report on the Use of Transfers.” 346 The Cash Dividend Tanzania Team. 2007. “Cash Transfer Programmes: Experiences, Challenges, and the Way Forward for Tanzania.” PowerPoint presentation at the Africa Regional Workshop on Cash Transfer Programmes for Vulnerable Groups, Mombasa, Kenya, February 26–28.

TASAF (Tanzania Social Action Fund). 2008. “Tanzania Community-Based Conditional Cash Transfer Pilot.” TASAF, Dar es Salaam.

Troger, Franziska, and Vicky Tennant. 2008. “The Use of Cash Grants in UNHCR Voluntary Repatriation Operations: Report of a ‘Lessons Learned’ Workshop.” Policy Development and Evaluation Service, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva.

UNHCR (Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2007.

“Burundi.” In Global Report 2007, 169–73. Geneva: UNHCR.

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). n.d.a. “The Lesotho Child Grants Programme.” UNICEF, Maseru.

———. n.d.b. “Services for Children in Need.” UNICEF, Windhoek.

———. 2008. “Review of the Child Support Grant: Uses, Implementation, and Obstacles.” Community Agency for Social Enquiry, Johannesburg.

———. 2009. “La Protection Sociale et les Enfants en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre: Le Cas du Mali.” Ministry of Social Development, Solidarity, and Elderly People and UNICEF, Bamako.

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) and Government of Malawi. 2009.

“The Malawi Experience: Social Cash Transfer and Their Multiple Impacts on Child Health, Nutrition, Food Security and Education.” PowerPoint presentation, Lilongwe, March 10.

U.S. Social Security Administration. 2009. Social Security Programs throughout the World: Africa, 2009. Washington, DC: Office of Retirement and Disability Policy Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics.

Waterhouse, Rachel. 2007. “Briefing Paper: Coordination and Coverage of Social Protection Initiatives in Mozambique.” International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, Brasília. http://www.ipc-undp.org/.

Watkins, Ben. 2008a. “Addendum to the Report ‘Alternative Methods for Targeting Social Assistance to Highly Vulnerable Groups.’” Kimetrica, Washington, DC.

———. 2008b. “Alternative Methods for Targeting Social Assistance to Highly Vulnerable Groups: Independent Monitoring and Evaluation Study.” Final report, Kimetrica, Washington, DC.

Williams, Martin J. 2007. “The Social and Economic Impacts of South Africa’s Child Support Grant.” Working Paper 39, Economic Policy Research Institute, Cape Town, South Africa.

Detailed Reviews of Sub-Saharan Africa’s Cash Transfer Programs 347 Willmore, Larry. 2003. “Universal Pensions in Mauritius: Lessons for the Rest of Us.” DESA Discussion Paper 32, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York.

Wiseman, Will, and Ulrich Hess. 2008. “Incorporating Weather Indices into Early Warning Systems for Emergency Response and Social Protection: Ethiopia.” Presentation at the World Bank, Washington, DC, October 1.

Woolard, Ingrid, and Murray Leibbrandt. 2010. “The Evolution and Impact of Unconditional Cash Transfers in South Africa.” Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

World Bank. n.d. “CCT in Nigeria: Preliminary Concept Note.” World Bank, Washington, DC.

———. 2005. “Conditional Cash Transfers for Vulnerable Children in Kenya:

Frequently Asked Questions.” World Bank, Washington, DC.

———. 2008. “Joint World Bank–DFID–ESSPIN–UNICEF Partners Mission on Girls’ Education Conditional Cash Transfers Pilot Programme for Northern Nigeria (Kano and Bauchi States).” World Bank, Washington, DC.

———. 2009a. “A Brief on the Current State of Social Protection in Mozambique.” Social Protection Unit, Human Development Network, Eastern and Southern Africa, Africa Region, World Bank, Washington, DC.

———. 2009b. “Emergency Project Paper under the Global Food Crisis Response Program on a Proposed Grant from the Multi-Donor Trust Fund in the Amount of US$8 Million and a Proposed Credit in the Amount of SDR 6.8 Million (US$10 Million Equivalent) to the Republic of Senegal for a Rapid Response Child-Focused Social Cash Transfer and Nutrition Security Project.” Human Development II, Country Department AFCF1, Africa Region, World Bank, Washington, DC.

———. 2009c. Nigeria: Conditional Grant and Cash Transfer Project.” Project Concept Note, Social Protection, Africa Region, World Bank, Washington, DC.

———. 2009d. “Program Document on a Proposed Grant in the Amount of SDR 4 Million (US$6 Million Equivalent) Funding to the Republic of Rwanda for a First Community Living Standards Grant (CLSG-1).” Human Development III, Eastern Africa Country Cluster II, Africa Region, World Bank, Washington, DC.

———. 2009e. “Project Appraisal Document for a Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Project.” World Bank, Washington, DC.

———. 2010a. Designing and Implementing a Rural Safety Net in a Low Income Setting: Lessons Learned from Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program 2005–

2009. Washington, DC: World Bank.

348 The Cash Dividend ———. 2010b. “Malawi and Tanzania Research Shows Promise in Preventing HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections.” World Bank, Washington, DC. http:// web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/AFRICAEXT/ EXTAFRHEANUTPOP/EXTAFRREGTOPHIVAIDS/0,,contentMDK:2264 9337~menuPK:717155~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:717 148,00.html.

———. 2010c. Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Credit in the Amount of SDR 58.4 Million (US$88.6 Million Equivalent) in the Amount of SDR 31.3 Million (US$47.6 Million Equivalent) in Pilot CRW Resources to the Republic of Ghana for a Social Opportunities Project.” Western Africa I, Social Protection, Africa Region, World Bank, Washington, DC.

———. 2010d. “Review of the Tanzania Community-Based Conditional Cash Transfer Pilot Program.” Annex to Aide-Memoire. Tanzania Social Action Fund Project. Washington, DC: World Bank.

———. 2011. “Managing Risk, Promoting Growth: Developing Systems for Social Protection in Africa—Africa Social Protection Strategy 2011–2021.” Concept Note, World Bank, Washington, DC.

WFP (World Food Programme). 2009. “Protracted Relief and Recovery Operations Approved by Correspondence Between the First Regular Session and the Annual Session 2009: Uganda 10121.3.” Executive Board Annual Session, WFP, Rome, June 8–12.

APPENDIX B

Overview Tables Note: In charts listing individual programs, extremely small, short-term programs are typically not displayed.

350 The Cash Dividend

–  –  –

Note: CNLS =Conseil National de Lutte contre le SIDA (National Council in the Fight against AIDS); MIS = management information system; NGO = nongovernmental organization.

–  –  –

Note: Blank spaces indicate that it is unclear what amount of the funding was donor financed and what amount was country financed.

398 The Cash Dividend

–  –  –

a. Soft conditions require that beneficiary households agree verbally or in writing that they will abide by program conditions. However, there is no penalty for noncompliance. Hard conditions penalize beneficiaries for noncompliance.

Table B.27 Results from Evaluations of Cash Transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa

–  –  –

Table B.28 (continued) Country Source for country information Multiple countries: Giuseppe Zampaglione, World Bank Sierra Leone and other West African countries Multiple countries: West Cécile Cherrier, World Bank African countries Jan Eijkenaar, European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Multiple countries: West Anthony (Tony) Hodges, UNICEF and Central African countries Multiple countries: Sonya Sultan, DFID Zambia and Ghana Source: Authors’ compilation.

Note: DFID = U.K. Department for International Development; HSNP = Hunger Safety Net Programme; ODI = Overseas Development Institute; UNICEF = United Nations Children’s Fund; WFP = United Nations World Food Programme.

References Agüero, Jorge, Michael Carter, and Ingrid Woolard. 2007. “The Impact of Unconditional Cash Transfers on Nutrition: The South African Child Support Grant.” Working Paper 39, International Poverty Centre, Brasília.

Ardington, Cally, Anne Case, and Victoria Hosegood. 2009. “Labor Supply Responses to Large Social Transfers: Longitudinal Evidence from South Africa.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1 (1): 22–48.

Ayala, Francisco. 2009. “Design Proposal for a Kano State Pilot CCT for Girls’ Education.” Federal Republic of Nigeria, Nairobi.

Baird, Sarah, Ephraim Chirwa, Craig McIntosh, and Berk Özler. 2009.

“Unpacking the Impacts of a Randomized CCT Program in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Research proposal, University of California–San Diego and World Bank, Washington, DC.

Baird, Sarah, Craig McIntosh, and Berk Özler. 2011. “Cash or Condition?

Evidence from a Cash Transfer Experiment.” World Bank, Washington, DC.

http://ipl.econ.duke.edu/bread/papers/0511conf/Baird.pdf.

Bar-On, Arnon. 2002. “Going against World Trends: Social Protection in Botswana.” Social Policy Journal 1 (4): 23–41.

Bertrand, Marianne, Sendhil Mullainathan, and Douglas Miller. 2003. “Public Policy and Extended Families: Evidence from Pensions in South Africa.” World Bank Economic Review 17 (1): 27–50.

410 The Cash Dividend BFTU (Botswana Federation of Trade Unions). 2007. “Policy Position Paper on Social Security and Social Protection in Botswana.” BFTU, Gaborone.

Case, Anne, and Cally Ardington. 2006. “The Impact of Parental Death on School Outcomes: Longitudinal Evidence from South Africa.” Demography 43 (3): 401–20.

Central Statistics Office. 2007. Social Security Statistics, 2000/2000–2005/2006.

Port Louis: Ministry of Finance and Economic Development.

Devereux, Stephen, Rachel Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel Slater, Mulugeta Tefera, Taylor Brown, and Amdissa Teshome. 2008. Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP): 2008 Assessment Report. Sussex, U.K.: Institute of Development Studies, Overseas Development Institute, Dadimos Development Consultants, IDL Group, and A–Z Consult.

de Walque, Damien. 2009.“Evaluating the Impact of Conditional and Unconditional Cash Transfers in Rural Burkina Faso.” PowerPoint presentation, Development Economics Research Group, World Bank, Washington, DC, January 12.

de Walque, Damien, William H. Dow, Rose Nathan, Carol Medlin, and RESPECT Study Team. 2010. “The RESPECT Study: Evaluating Conditional Cash Transfers for HIV/STI Prevention in Tanzania.” World Bank, Washington, DC.

Duflo, Esther. 2000. “Child Health and Household Resources in South Africa:

Evidence from the Old Age Pension Program.” American Economic Review 90 (2): 393–98.

Edmonds, Eric. 2006. “Child Labor and Schooling Responses to Anticipated Income in South Africa.” Journal of Development Economics 81 (2): 386–414.

Edmonds, Eric, Kristen Mammen, and Douglas Miller. 2005. “Rearranging the Family? Income Support and Elderly Living Arrangements in a Low-Income Country.” Journal of Human Resources 40 (1): 186–207.

Ellis, Frank. 2007. “Food Subsidy Programme, Mozambique.” REBA Case Study Brief 7, Regional Evidence Building Agenda, Regional Hunger Vulnerability Programme, Johannesburg.

EPRI (Economic Policy Research Institute). 2008. “Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of the Child Support Grant.” EPRI, Cape Town, South Africa.

European University Institute. 2010. Social Protection for Inclusive Development: A New Perspective in EU Cooperation with Africa. San Domenico di Fiesole, Italy: Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute.

Evans, David. 2008. “Tanzania Community-Based Conditional Cash Transfer (CB-CCT) Pilot.” PowerPoint presentation, World Bank, Washington, DC, November 12.

Overview Tables 411 Gilligan, Daniel O., John Hoddinott, Neha Rati Kumar, and Alemayehu Seyoum Taffesse. 2009. An Impact Evaluation of Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Nets Program. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.

Government of Cape Verde. 2011. “Ministério do Trabalho, Formação Profissional e Solidaridade Social.” http://www.mtfs.gov.cv/.

HSNP (Hunger Safety Net Programme). n.d. “Welcome to Hunger Safety Net Programme.” HSNP, Nairobi.

International Poverty Centre. n.d. “Cash Transfers and Social Protection: Interview with Foday Conteh, Senior Monitoring and Evaluation Officer of the Social Safety Net Programme from the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, Sierra Leone.” International Poverty Centre, Brasília. http://www.ipc-undp.org/publications/cct/Interview_Foday_Conteh_SierraLeone.pdf.

Levine, Sebastian, Servaas van der Berg, and Derek Yu. 2009. “Measuring the Impact of Social Cash Transfers on Poverty and Inequality in Namibia.” Stellenbosch Economic Working Paper 25/09, Department of Economics and Bureau for Economic Research, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

MDRP (Multi-country Demobilization and Reintegration Program). 2006.

“Reinsertion: Bridging the Gap between Demobilization and Reintegration.” In Focus 3 (September): 1–4. http://www.mdrp.org/PDFs/In_Focus_3.pdf.

Miller, Candace. 2006. “Social Welfare in Africa: Meeting the Needs of Households Caring for Orphans and Affected by AIDS.” Presentation for the United Nations Children’s Fund and the Graduate Program in International Affairs at the New School University conference on Social Protection Initiatives for Children, Women, and Families: An Analysis of Recent Experiences, New York, October 30–31.

Miller, Candace, Maxton Tsoka, and the Mchinji Evaluation Team. 2007.

“Evaluation of the Mchinji Cash Transfer: Report II—Targeting and Impact.” Center for International Health and Development, Boston University, Boston, and Centre for Social Research, University of Malawi, Zomba.

Ministry of Community Development and Social Services. 2007. “Implementation Framework for Scaling Up to a National System of Social Transfers in Zambia.” Ministry of Community Development and Social Services, Lusaka.

Ministry of Community Development and Social Services and German Agency for Technical Cooperation. 2007. “The Pilot Social Cash Transfer Scheme in Zambia: Summary Report.” Ministry of Community Development and Social Services and German Agency for Technical Cooperation, Lusaka.

Posel, Dori, James Fairburn, and Frances Lund. 2006. “Labour Migration and Households: A Reconsideration of the Effects of the Social Pension on Labour Supply in South Africa.” Economic Modelling 23 (5): 836–53.

412 The Cash Dividend Republic of Rwanda. 2009. “Vision 2020 Umurenge Programme (VUP): Direct Support Operational Framework and Procedure Manual.” Ministry of Local Government, Good Governance, Community Development, and Social Affairs, Kigali.

RHVP (Regional Hunger and Vulnerability Programme). 2007. “Old Age and Public Assistance Grants, Swaziland.” REBA Case Study Brief 6, Regional Evidence Building Agenda, RHVP, Johannesburg.

RNA (RuralNet Associates). 2007. “Case Study on the Chipata and Kazungula Social Cash Transfer Schemes by CARE International.” Regional Hunger and Vulnerability Programme, Johannesburg.

Samson, Michael, Una Lee, Asanda Ndlebe, Kenneth Mac Quene, Ingrid van Niekerk, Viral Gandhi, Tomoko Harigaya, and Celeste Abrahams. 2004. The Social and Economic Impact of South Africa’s Social Security System. Cape Town, South Africa: Economic Policy Research Institute.

Schubert, Bernd, and Mayke Huijbregts. 2006. “The Malawi Social Cash Transfer Pilot Scheme, Preliminary Lessons Learned.” Presented at the conference on Social Protection Initiatives for Children, Women, and Families: An Analysis of Recent Experiences, New York, October 30–31.

Soares, Fábio Veras, and Clarissa Teixeira. 2010. “Impact Evaluation of the Expansion of the Food Subsidy Programme in Mozambique.” Research Brief 17, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, Brasília.

South African Government Services. 2009. “Social Services.” South African Government Services, Pretoria. http://www.services.gov.za/.

Tembo, Gelson, and Nicholas Freeland. 2009. “Impact of Social Cash Transfers on Investment, Welfare and Education Outcomes: A Retrospective Study of the Social Cash Transfer Schemes in Chipata, Kalomo and Kazungula Districts of Zambia.” Lusaka, Zambia: Ministry of Community Development and Social Services.

UNHCR (Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). n.d.

“Impact of Cash Grants: A First Assessment.” UNHCR, Geneva.

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). n.d. “The Lesotho Child Grants Programme.” UNICEF, Maseru.

———. 2009. “La Protection Sociale et les Enfants en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre: Le Cas du Mali.” Ministry of Social Development, Solidarity, and Elderly People and UNICEF, Bamako.

Williams, Martin J. 2007. “The Social and Economic Impacts of South Africa’s Child Support Grant.” Working Paper 39, Economic Policy Research Institute, Cape Town, South Africa.

Woolard, Ingrid, and Murray Leibbrandt. 2010. “The Evolution and Impact of Unconditional Cash Transfers in South Africa.” Southern Africa Labour and Overview Tables 413 Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

World Bank. 2009a. “Emergency Project Paper under the Global Food Crisis Response Program on a Proposed Grant from the Multi-Donor Trust Fund in the Amount of US$8 Million and a Proposed Credit in the Amount of SDR 6.8 Million (US$10 Million Equivalent) to the Republic of Senegal for a Rapid Response Child-Focused Social Cash Transfer and Nutrition Security Project.” Human Development II, Country Department AFCF1, Africa Region, World Bank, Washington, DC.

———. 2009b. “Nigeria: Conditional Grant and Cash Transfer Project.” Project Concept Note, Social Protection, Africa Region, World Bank, Washington, DC.

———. 2009c. “Project Appraisal Document for a Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Project.” World Bank, Washington, DC.

———. 2010a. Designing and Implementing a Rural Safety Net in a Low Income Setting: Lessons Learned from Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program 2005–2009. Washington, DC: World Bank.

———. 2010b. “Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Credit in the Amount of SDR 58.4 Million (US$88.6 Million Equivalent) in the Amount of SDR 31.3 Million (US$47.6 Million Equivalent) in Pilot CRW Resources to the Republic of Ghana for a Social Opportunities Project.” Western Africa I, Social Protection, Africa Region, World Bank, Washington, DC.

ECO-AUDIT Environmental Benefits Statement

The World Bank is committed to preserving Saved:

endangered forests and natural resources. • 7 trees The Office of the Publisher has chosen to • 4 million BTUs of print The Cash Dividend: The Rise of Cash total energy Transfer Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa • 876 pounds of net on recycled paper with 50 percent post- greenhouse gases consumer fiber in accordance with the rec- • 3,951 gallons of ommended standards for paper usage set by waste water the Green Press Initiative, a nonprofit pro- • 251 pounds of gram supporting publishers in using fiber solid waste that is not sourced from endangered forests.

For more information, visit www.greenpress initiative.org.

“This stocktaking of existing cash transfer systems is a valuable reference point as Sub-Saharan Africa emerges from the crisis years with a renewed interest in establishing such programs or making them work more effectively for poor and vulnerable people.” —Ritva Reinikka Sector Director for Human Development, Africa Region, The World Bank “This excellent volume provides a wealth of empirical detail about cash transfer programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Over 120 programs provide the basis for the assessment, and the Appendix, which is close to half the volume, reviews programs country by country. I like the fact that the assessment is not dogmatic but lays out the strengths and weaknesses of cash transfer programs in the African setting and highlights country specificities. This book will be a useful resource for both researchers and practitioners.” —Ravi Kanbur Professor of Economics, Cornell University “Garcia and Moore provide us with a comprehensive and detailed catalogue of the growing number of cash transfer programs in Africa. The systematic collection of data on critical aspects of these programs is a crucial contribution to the emerging literature on cash transfers.” —Ariel Fiszbein Chief Economist, Human Development Network, The World Bank

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