«DIREC TIONS IN DE VELOPMENT Human Development Public Disclosure Authorized The Cash Dividend The Rise of Cash Transfer Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa ...»
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CHAPTER 3 Design and Implementation of Cash Transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa Trends, Lessons, and Knowledge Gaps Although chapter 2 provided a high-level view of strategic issues related to cash transfers (CTs) in Sub-Saharan Africa, this chapter examines the nuances of CT design and implementation, and it sketches a more complete picture of how CTs have worked in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is intended to highlight trends in program implementation, lessons that have already been learned, and areas where existing knowledge needs to be improved to enhance program outcomes. The chapter begins with one of the most basic questions: What are the objectives of the reviewed CTs in Sub-Saharan Africa?
The Varying Objectives of Sub-Saharan Africa’s CT Programs CT programs in the region address a remarkably wide range of objectives.
As already mentioned, some have specific human capital goals or aim to encourage peace consolidation in a postconflict situation. Others state that they are working to combat both acute and chronic food insecurity or to ensure that targeted beneficiaries are able to meet subsistence consumption needs. An objective of a number of CTs is simply to determine 76 The Cash Dividend how well the programs function in the given environment. A sample of CT program objectives in the region is given in box 3.1.
Successful programs rely on analytical background work that helps to determine the needs in a given area and the type of program or CT that can best respond to those needs. Program objectives should reflect those analyses, which consider both quantitative factors, such as the number or
Objectives of Sub-Saharan Africa’s Cash Transfer Programs
Sub-Saharan Africa’s CT programs have a wide variety of objectives:
• Botswana Program for Destitute Persons. To ensure that the government provides minimum assistance to genuinely destitute persons to ensure their good health and welfare.
• Botswana Old Age Pension. To financially assist elderly people who do not have other support as a result of the deterioration of support from the extended family.
• Burundi UNHCR (Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) Cash Grants. To encourage and support repatriation of Burundian refugees residing in Tanzania.
• Eritrea Results-Based Financing. To improve the health outcomes of mothers and children in rural areas of Eritrea by increasing the use of health facilities and services, improving children’s health outcomes, and increasing the coverage and quality of health services.
• Ethiopia Productive Safety Net Programme. To provide households with cash or food transfers to help meet their food needs and protect them from depleting their assets, and to build productive assets in communities to decrease the causes of chronic food insecurity.
• Ghana LEAP. To supplement the subsistence needs of the extremely poor, connect beneficiaries to related services to improve their welfare, and encourage comprehensive social development through the use of public-private partnerships.
• Kenya CT for OVC. To provide regular cash transfers to households with orphans and vulnerable children to encourage fostering and retention of such children in households within communities and to promote their human capital development.
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Box 3.1 (continued)
• Malawi Social Cash Transfer. To decrease poverty, hunger, and starvation in all households that are ultrapoor and, at the same time, labor constrained.
• Mozambique Food Subsidy Program. To ensure that consumption levels do not fall to levels insufficient for survival.
• Nigeria Kano Conditional Cash Transfer for Girls’ Education. To increase education levels of girls in Kano state to improve progression toward the Millennium Development Goals of universal primary education and gender equality.
• Senegal Conditional Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children. To support education and vocational training of 5,000 orphans and vulnerable children by ensuring that they have access to education or vocational training; supporting their financial needs; and financially supporting their psychosocial, family, educational, and professional sustenance.
• South Africa Grant System. To provide appropriate social assistance to those without access to social security and to reduce poverty and promote social development.