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Yayasan Indonesia Sejahtera (YIS) 1988. Percaya Diri Awal Kemandirian. Profil Program Kredit Pedesaan. Solo: YIS.


The idea of linking banks and financial self-help groups gained international attention when the United Nation’s ‘Third International Symposium on the Mobilization of Personal Savings in Developing Countries’ emphasized the necessity of both formal and informal financial institutions for rural development, and recommended linkages between them. (United Nations 1986) As a follow-up and on the basis of an outline of basic principles of the linkage approach (Seibel 1985), the Asia Pacific Rural and Agricultural Credit Association (APRACA) and the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) formulated the new program of Linking Self-help Groups and Banks in Developing Countries (Kropp et al.


Indonesia was the first country to translate the concept of linking banks and selfhelp groups into practice. A preparatory survey (Gadjah Mada University 1987) pointed to the development potential of financial self-help groups, on the one hand, and their limited capacity in meeting the credit demand of their members, on the other hand. On the basis, Bank Indonesia, Indonesia’s central bank, elaborated the program proposal ‘Linking Self-Help Groups and Banks to Promote Savings Mobilization and Credit Delivery in the Informal Sector in Indonesia’ (Bank Indonesia 1987). Reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of formal and informal financial institutions, the proposal suggested the establishment of business relationships between banks, self-help promotion institutions (SHPI) and financial self-help groups. In late 1988, Bank Indonesia in cooperation with the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) launched the linkage project with the purpose of making viable financial services available to self-help groups of small farmers and entrepreneurs, thus contributing to the improvement of the rural financial system in general. By July 1994 the training program had involved 2,300 bank and SHPI employees, and 11,000 board members of 3,700 self-help groups.

1,493 self-help groups had received an accumulated loan amount of Rp. 13.5 billion through the intermediation of 24 banks and 58 SHPI. (Bank Indonesia 1994)


Bank Indonesia 1987. "Linking Self-Help Groups and Banks to Promote Savings Mobilization and Credit Delivery in the Informal Sector in Indonesia. A Program Proposal." Jakarta: BI.

Bank Indonesia 1989. "Petunjuk Pelaksanaan Pilot Proyek Pengembangan Hubungan Bank dengan Kelompok Swadaya Masyarakat." Jakarta: Bank Indonesia.

Bank Indonesia 1989. "Operational Plan: Pilot Project Linking Banks and SelfHelp Groups in Indonesia." Jakarta: Bank Indonesia.

Bank Indonesia 1990. "Petunjuk Umum Pilot Proyek Pengembangan Hubungan Bank dengan Kelompok Swadaya Masyarakat." Jakarta: Bank Indonesia.

Bank Indonesia 1990. "Pilot Project Linking Banks and Self-Help Groups." Project leaflet. Jakarta: BI.

Bank Indonesia 1994. “PHBK. An Implementation of the Linkage Program in Indonesia.” Country Paper for the APRACA Regional Workshop on the Linkage Program, 26-28 October 1994, Manila, Philippines. Jakarta: BI.

Bank Indonesia 1996. “PHBK. The Indonesian Linkage Project. Brief Exposure on Strategy and Performance.” Jakarta: BI.

Foundation for Development Cooperation 1993. Banking with the Poor: SelfHelp Groups, NGOs and Banks as Financial Intermediaries. Kölner Beiträge zur Entwicklungsländerforschung, Band 20. Saarbrücken, Fort Lauderdale: Verlag breitenbach Publishers.

Gadjah Mada University, Reserach Centre for Rural and Regional Development 1987. "Linking Banks and Self-Help Promotion Institutions to promote Savings Mobilization and Credit Delivery. Case Study: selected self-help groups in Central Java and Yogyakarta." Yogyakarta: UGM.

Holloh, D. and S. M. Soetjipto 1991. "Opening a Lookout on Self-Help Groups in PPHBK." Yogyakarta: Bank Indonesia/GTZ.

Holloh, D. 1991. "Linkage Monitoring. Concept and Instruments for Monitoring Linkages between Banks, Self-Help Promotion Institutions and Self-Help Groups."

Bank Indonesia/GTZ, Jakarta 1991.

Holloh, D. 1992. "Linkage Monitoring", in Kropp, E. and B.R. Quinones, eds. 1992.

Financial System Development in Support of People`s Economy. Bangkok:

APRACA Publications, 47-66.

Koch, E. and S. M. Soetjipto 1993. "Target Groups at a Glance: Linking Banks and Self-Help Groups after three Years." Savings and Development 4: 391-403.

Kropp, E., M. Marx, B. Pramod, B. R. Quinones and H. D. Seibel 1989. Linking Self-Help Groups and Banks in Developing Countries. Rossdorf: TZ-Verlagsgesellschaft for APRACA and GTZ.

Maurer, K. 1989. "Rural Credit: how much does it cost?" PHBK Discussion Paper.

Yogyakarta: Bank Indonesia.

Maurer, K. 1990. "Sada Uhur. First Experiences from a Pilot Project." Rural Finance (2) 3:14-19.

Maurer, K. 1992. "Transaction Costs and Interest Margins at Banks and LPSM."

Jakarta: Bank Indonesia and GTZ.

Maurer, K. and S. M. Soetjipto 1992. "Savings Mobilization and Internal Lending in Self-Help Groups." in Kropp, E. and B.R. Quinones, eds. 1992. Financial System Development in Support of People`s Economy. Bangkok: APRACA Publications, 25-45.

PHBK Coordinating Committee 1992. "Guiding Principles of the Linkage Programme in Indonesia." in Kropp, E. and B.R. Quinones, eds. 1992. Financial System Development in Support of People's Economy. Bangkok: APRACA Publication, pp. 103-127.

Seibel, H.D. 1985. “Saving for Development. A Linkage Model for Informal and

Formal Financial Markets.” Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 24(4):


Seibel, H.D. 1989. “Finance with the Poor, by the Poor, for the Poor. Financial Technologies for the Informal Sector with Case Studies from Indonesia.” University of Basel: Social Strategies 3(2): 1-47.

Seibel, H. D. 1990. "Linking Banks and Self-Help Groups: Some Practical Experiences." in Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit 1990.

"Development Banking for the Benefit of the Poor. Subsystem 3. Eschborn: GTZ.

Seibel, H.D. 1989. “Linking Informal and Formal Financial Institutions in Africa and

Asia.” in Levitsky, J., ed. 1989. Microenterprises in Developing Countries. London:

Intermediate Technology Publications, pp. 97-118.

Seibel, H. D. and U. Parhusip 1990. "Financial innovations for microenterprises linking formal and informal financial institutions." Small Enterprise Development (1) 2: 14-26.

Seibel, H.D and U. Parhusip 1992. “Linking Formal and Informal Financial Institutions: An Indonesian Example.” in Adams, D.W. and D.A. Fitchett, eds.

1992. Informal Finance in Low-Income Countries. Boulder: Westview Press, pp.


United Nations 1986. Savings for Development. Report of the Third International Symposium on the Mobilization of Personal Savings in Developing Countries. New York: United Nations.

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