«State expenditure of the Canton of Basel-Stadt and unpaid work Summary Mirjam von Felten This study examines the question of whether cuts in public ...»
This leaves us with the question of whether it is mainly women who take over responsibility for childcare (unpaid) when both parents are in employment despite the shortage of public childcare facilities. Given that three quarters of families with at least one pre-school child indicated in the Family Report (Bucher/Perrez 2001) that they had found a private solution, the assumption is yes. The SLF 2001 study showed that roughly 15% of Swiss households with children below 15 place their children in the care of relatives. In nine out of ten cases the relatives are the grandparents, and in three quarters of these cases it is the grandmother who cares for the children. This means that roughly 10% of Swiss households with children below 15 can regularly count on “Granny-care” (Bauer/ Strub 2002; Buhmann 2001).
State expenditure of the Canton of Basel-Stadt and unpaid work 133 Gender-responsive budget analysis in the Canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland Conclusion Mascha Madoerin and Andrea Pfeifer In our project we have been able to identify two key aspects of unpaid labour and
expenditure in the canton of Basel-Stadt:
1. The economic significance of unpaid labour in the canton of Basel-Stadt: In 2000, men and women devoted more hours to unpaid labour than to paid labour. The burden of work is particularly heavy on women with children below
15. They provide over half the care for children and adults in need of care, yet they make up only one tenth of the population above age 15. The burden of unpaid labour on this segment of the population is in all likelihood an important reason why they are disadvantaged in the context of gainful employment.
But unpaid labour constitutes a key economic factor for the living standards of the resident population of the canton of Basel-Stadt. So immense is the magnitude of unpaid labour and so asymmetric its distribution between males and females, that a comprehensive gender mainstreaming approach to economic policy is required to formulate a gender equality policy that effectively relieves women from the burden of unpaid labour. A budget policy based on gender equality must aim for more than a gender-equitable distribution of public resources among men and women, boys and girls. It must also encompass variants of potential economic scenarios on ways of relieving women from the burden of unpaid labour in the future, on the way in which the future care economy should be organised and on the role which the state can or must play in such scenarios. Part 1 of this paper shows that, without any additional surveys, the available statistical data can be used to shed more light on the employment and income economy of persons residing in the canton as well on as the economy of the canton as a whole.
2. Based on the BASS Study method we were able to show that cantonal expenditure with knock-on costs for unpaid labour rose between 1990 and 2000 far less sharply than expenditure in areas which, in the opinion of experts, have no influence on the volume of unpaid labour performed by men and women in the canton of Basel-Stadt. Expenditure with and without knock-on costs increased at similar rates until 1997. From then on, however, the two diverged, with expenditure relevant for unpaid labour dropping while expenditure without knock-on costs increased. The main reason for this drop was restructuring measures in the healthcare sector in general and hospitals in particular. To illustrate the causal relationship between expenditure and unpaid labour in the 1990s, two examples – expenditure on hospitals and expenditure on day-care for children – were analysed and discussed in more details.
The decline in cantonal expenditure on hospitals from the mid-1990s was mainly related to personnel costs, and a shift occurred from inpatient to outpatient care. The reduction in public spending on personnel is explained by restructuring and changes in financing. Even taking these changes into account, the number of hospital staff has reduced and the average duration of hospitalisation State expenditure of the Canton of Basel-Stadt and unpaid work 134 Gender-responsive budget analysis in the Canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland has dropped sharply since 1990. The reasons for this are many and varied: Probable factors include more efficient utilisation of capacity due to the reduction in beds since 1997, outsourcing of long-term nursing beds in nursing homes, and the increase in outpatient operations.
Whether the average duration of hospitalisation has also declined due to the fact that patients are discharged early in order to save costs, as a result of which they convalesce at home under the care of relatives, could not be conclusively determined. The hypothesis is, however, supported by the fact that unmarried persons stay in hospital on average slightly longer than married persons, and that more and more discharged patients are seeking knock-on consultations. Expenditure on day-care facilities fell due to a decision by the cantonal government in 1997 against any further expansion of such facilities.
Since the mid-1990s there has been a growing demand among parents, particularly those with young children, for crèches and day-care places, and more particularly part-time places. Moreover, since unsubsidised day-care facilities offered more places and the number of children in Basel-Stadt dropped due to a declining population, there was no overall decline in the supply of childcare facilities. In general, therefore, Basel-Stadt residents were not obliged to perform more unpaid care work. However, in all probability measures to economise on day-care meant that, for child care reasons, a substantial proportion of women were unable to go out to work or worked only for a limited number of hours, or that other persons such as grandmothers looked after children while mothers took up paid employment.
An analysis of cantonal expenditure on day-care for children and hospitals
clearly highlighted the need for additional data and for existing data to be evaluated as extensively as possible:
• Hospitals could assist doctors and nursing staff within the context of quality assurance by providing patients, upon their discharge, with an estimate of how dependent they will be on help (similar to an assessment of incapacity to work or the level of disability). In the course of time this will provide information which can be used to determine whether the average cost of post-discharge care is rising or falling.
• By questioning patients several weeks after their discharge, information can be obtained as to how dependent they were on help, who nursed them at home and who ran their errands.
• Existing data on unpaid care-giving should also be evaluated and disseminated as extensively as possible. For example, the Swiss Health Survey contains findings on how frequently individuals assist the sick, disabled or elderly (e.g.
visiting, doing housework, bringing meals or chauffeuring) and whether these individuals themselves obtain informal assistance. It also contains information on who receives and who provides assistance. The survey has been conducted every five years since 1992/93 (1997, 2002) and in 2002 a random sample was provided for Basel-Stadt to enable limited differentiated evaluations.
• A survey conducted among parents with young children or children up to 16 could provide data on whether mothers who are not in employment would State expenditure of the Canton of Basel-Stadt and unpaid work 135 Gender-responsive budget analysis in the Canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland seek paid employment and whether mothers in part-time employment would work more hours if they could find a suitable childcare option for their children.
Working parents must be asked who looks after their children during their absence.
Overall we view the BASS method as a good instrument for an initial approach to analysing the effect of public spending on unpaid labour. As Part 2 of this paper shows, it provides a useful, if crude, warning system. If further refined, it could be used to obtain more accurate findings on the causal relationship between public spending and unpaid labour. Besides additional surveys, an analysis of the impact on unpaid labour of the overall budget, with its complete range of different functional areas requires time and resources. Moreover, experts in the various sectors, with experience in gender mainstreaming, must be involved in the analysis and interpretation of data.
In general, this study shows that gender-differentiated budget analyses exhibit two aspects: Firstly, unlike the BASS study, a differentiated analysis of the data can be used to investigate the causal relationship between public expenditure and unpaid labour in more detail, identify problems and accordingly formulate recommendations for surveys to determine precisely this causal relationship. In the case of hospitals, this primarily requires a differentiation between expenditure on materials and personnel, or in the case of day-care, a more accurate classification of public services and subsidies (day-care facilities for children). The decision on what specifically has to be differentiated must be made on an individual functional area basis.
For this reason, only the following general statements can be made with regard to refining the BASS study: that it would be desirable to refine it for all functional areas of the budget, and to obtain data that illustrate the causal relationship between public spending and unpaid labour. This includes conducting surveys among clients of specific public services as well as data on unpaid labour, broken down according to various attributes.
Secondly, the gender-differentiated budget analysis developed by the BASS study is a “Gender Mainstreaming by Accounts” method, i.e. it is a statistical and financial warning system, which uses time series to indicate shifts in public expenditure, the effects of which threaten to thwart the objectives of gender equality policies. Such an early-warning system can be used by government and parliament to ensure that important implications for gender equality policy are incorporated in budget decisions.
State expenditure of the Canton of Basel-Stadt and unpaid work 136 Gender-responsive budget analysis in the Canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland References Bakker, Isabella (1998), Travail non rémunéré et macroéconomie: nouveaux débats, nouveaux outils d‘intervention. Recherche en matière de politiques, Condition féminine, Canada, Août 1998, http://www.swc-cfc.gc.ca Bauer, Tobias / Baumann, Beat (1996), An den Frauen sparen? Eine Untersuchung zu den Auswirkungen der Sparpolitik von Bund, Kantonen und Gemeinden auf die Frauen, Bern („Methode BASS“), Bern Baumann, Beat (1997), Vorstellung der Analysemethode, Präsentation der Resulate für Basel-Stadt an der Weiterbildungsveranstaltung «Finanzplanung: frauengerecht und sozialverträglich», 11. September 1997 in Basel, organisiert von Frauenrat Basel-Stadt, Gleichstellungsbüro Basel-Stadt und Verband des Personals öffentlicher Dienste, VPOD, Sektion Basel.
Bauer, Tobias / Strub, Silvia (2002), Ohne Krippe Grosi stünde vieles still, Forum Familienfragen vom 11. September 2002 Boemle, Max (1996), Der Jahresabschluss, 3. Auflage, Zürich.
Bittmann, Michael (1999):
Parenthood Without Penalty: Time use and Public Policy in Australia and Finland, in: Feminist Economics, Vol. 5, No. 3, S. 27-42.
Bucher, Nathalie / Perrez, Meinrad (2001), Bericht über die Familie im Kanton Basel-Stadt. Eine Untersuchung in den Quartieren Breite, St. Alban und St. Johann, Schriftenreihe des Justizdepartements des Kantons Basel-Stadt, Band 4, Basel.
Buhmann, Brigitte (2001), Zahlen und Fakten zur haushaltsexternen Kinderbetreuung, BFS aktuell, SAKENews Nr. 16.
Bundesamt für Statistik (2002), Kosten des Gesundheitswesens: Steigerung um 4,1% im Jahr 2000, Pressemitteilung vom Juni 2002, Neuchâtel.
Erziehungsdepartement des Kantons Basel-Stadt,
Beiträge für die Tagesbetreuung, auf dem Internet unter:
http://www.ed.bs.ch/dienste/tagesbetreuung/Betreuungsbeiträge.html INFRAS (2001), Entwicklung eines Instruments zur Bedarfsermittlung in der familienergänzenden Betreuung. Konzeption und Aufbau des Prognosemodells, im Auftrag des Sozialdepartementes der Stadt Zürich, Bern, Zürich.