FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, dissertations, abstract

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 4 | 5 || 7 | 8 |

«State expenditure of the Canton of Basel-Stadt and unpaid work Summary Mirjam von Felten This study examines the question of whether cuts in public ...»

-- [ Page 6 ] --

Source: Data provided by the Day-care Department of the Services Section 20 Two providers closed their day care homes in 1997 and 1998 (Glaserbergstrasse 55, run by Vincentianum AG, and Rütimeyerstrasse 1, run by the Missione Cattolica Italiana, as a result of which the number of subsidised places fell by 78. Moreover, in 2000 a subsidised home with 8 places (Schülergruppe Müllheimerstrasse run by the Basel Women’s Association in Heuberg) was turned into an unsubsidised home for schoolchildren. However, during the same year the Cantonal Council approved an application by the Bläsikrippen Association to subsidise 6 additional places (Administrative Report 1997, ed. 1998, p. 86; 1998, ed. 1999, p.130; 2000, ed 2001, p.116).

21 Information provided by Pierre Weber, Day Care Department.

22 The number of children looked after in unsubsidised institutions in May 1998 (N=590) is based on an estimation by the Day Care Department of the Services Section. The status at January 2002 (N=770) does not include children who are looked after for one day or less per week. However, it is likely that a large number of children come under this category. No data is available for December 1995.

State expenditure of the Canton of Basel-Stadt and unpaid work 128 Gender-responsive budget analysis in the Canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland Although the number of places in subsidised institutions decreased between December 1995 and January 2002, the number of children in day-care rose by 11.4% from 1,296 to 1,444 (see Fig. 8). This is primarily due to the fact that children are increasingly looked after on a part-time basis, and was the result, among other things, of the introduction in September 1994 of a means test which required parents on monthly incomes above CHF 5,000 to pay higher contributions (Administrative Report 1994:26). It is, however, to be assumed that, due to changing social attitudes to working mothers, parents increasingly sought parttime places for children. This applies above all to Swiss parents, who can “afford” the mother working part time. Crèches and day-care homes were formerly used mainly by foreign parents who were dependent on both parties working full time.

Because part-time places resulted in higher costs than full-time places, institutions only started offering them in response to heavy demand.

Compared to subsidised day-care places, the number of children in unsubsidised day-care institutions rose by 30.5% from 590 to 770 between May 1998 and January 2002 (see Fig. 8). This increase would have been even higher had the figures for January 2002 also included children who are looked after for only one day or less.

Yet demand for subsidised childcare places is outstripping supply. The number of children on the waiting list for crèches and day-care homes had already risen substantially between 1990 and 1992, then declined by 1995 to a lower level than five years previously, only to rise steeply again (see Fig. 9). 23 Demand for places appears to be strongly correlated with economic trends, and reached its lowest point in 1995 after unemployment in Basel-Stadt had reached its peak in

1994. The assumption is that during this period women withdrew from the job market and took over responsibility for childcare themselves (“hidden” unemployment). With the decline in unemployment in 1998, demand for day-care places once more rose strongly, particularly for children below 3 (Administrative Report 1998:130).24 The demand for part-time places has also risen since the mid-1990s.

23 In 1990 there was a demand for 76 additional day care places, in 1992 for 125 places, in 1995 for 50 and in 2001 for no less than 271 places.

24 This statement refers to state-run day care homes but may be regarded as generally applicable.

State expenditure of the Canton of Basel-Stadt and unpaid work 129 Gender-responsive budget analysis in the Canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland Fig. 9 Waiting list for crèches and day nurseries in the canton of Basel-Stadt, 1990 to 200125

–  –  –

Source: Data provided by the Day-care Department of the Services Section Fig. 10 Waiting list for subsidised day-care families in the canton of Basel-Stadt, 1990 to 200726

–  –  –

Source: Data provided by the Day-care Department of the Services Section 25 The occupancy rate in crèches and day nurseries was used to estimate the number of places that correspond to the children on the waiting lists.

26 The number of places (full-time equivalents) is estimated based on an assumed occupancy rate of 66%.

State expenditure of the Canton of Basel-Stadt and unpaid work 130 Gender-responsive budget analysis in the Canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland Day-care families Between May 1998 and January 2002 the number of children looked after by subsidised day-care families dropped by 17.5% from 194 to 160. The number of places fell by 21.8% from 128 to 100. 27 Further analysis is required in order to determine the cause of this decline. The low level of pay which day-care families receive is a possible factor. Day-care mothers (and the few day-care fathers) are also paid for only 8 hours a day, even if they look after a child for 10 hours. 28 This reduction has occurred despite very high demand since the mid-1990s.

In 1995 and 2001, more than 80 children were registered on the waiting list for day-care families (see Fig. 10). This means that, in order to meet demand in 2001, at least 50% more children would have had to be taken care of by subsidised day-care families.

Children on the waiting lists (i.e. day-care places) represent only part of the outstanding demand – i.e. the “observed demand”. The assumption is that not all parents put their children on the waiting lists, perhaps because they are put off by the long waiting times, or are not satisfied with the location, the price or the opening hours of the day-care institution, or are insufficiently informed about day-care options (INFRAS 2001:6). The children of parents in this category therefore make up the unseen part of the demand and may be referred to as “latent demand”. The Report on the Situation of the Family in Basel-Stadt /Bucher/Perrez 2001) shows that latent demand is significantly higher than the observed demand. In the summer of 1999, 252 families with at least one pre-school child and living in the St.

Johann, St. Alban and Breite districts were sent a written questionnaire asking why they did not use institutionalised childcare services. Slightly more than one third of the families surveyed (36.9%) said that they had no need of such services, and three out of ten families (29.1%) responded by saying they did not want to entrust strangers with looking after their children. For almost half of the families (48.2%) the price was too high, and more than one eighth (13.2%) replied that they had been unable to find a place.29 Almost three quarters of the respondents (73.4%) said they had found a private alternative. The survey also found that almost 15% of the families were intending to place their children in a day-care school, crèche or day-care home within the next five years (Bucher/Perrez 2001:102ff.).

A study commissioned by the Education Department and conducted by INFRAS based on the socio-economic composition of the families estimated that the canton of Basel-Stadt lacked up to 1,300 day-care places at the end of 2001 (Pulli et al. 2002). Consequently, the existing 1,640 places covered less than 60% of all day-care places (2,940) required to satisfy “latent” demand.

27 No data are available on unsubsidised day-care families. Data are available on subsidised day-care families only from May 1998, although the number of places (N=128) is an estimate. An occupancy rate of roughly 66% for a day-care place is assumed.

28 This regulation may recently have been abolished.

29 Multiple answers were permitted.

–  –  –

In conclusion, let us return to the introductory question: Has the introduction of a means test on parental contributions in 1994 and the Cantonal Council’s decision in 1997 to freeze the number of child care places resulted in an increase in unpaid labour performed in the canton of Basel-Stadt? – If the question is looked at from a macro-economic perspective, the answer must be no. Overall, the number of children in the 0-14 age group being looked after by day-care facilities outside the family increased (cf level of supply). The decline in the number of institutions subsidised by the canton was “offset” by the following trends: More and more parents placed their children with crèches, day-care homes and day-care families on a part-time basis – possibly due to the increase in parental contributions. At the same time the number of children in the canton of Basel-Stadt decreased. Moreover, unsubsidised institutions began offering more day-care places.

It cannot therefore be assumed that parents in Basel-Stadt reduced their working hours to any great extent in order to look after their children themselves because they had lost their child’s day-care place due to the freeze. However, it is possible that a shift in unpaid childcare occurred across population groups. In all probability, the introduction of a means test on parental contributions for subsidised institutions primarily affected middle- and high-income families.

A closer investigation of the consequences of introducing the means test on parental contributions is required. One hypothesis is that families reduced the time their children spent in external care and increasingly looked after them themselves in the remaining time, or organised a private alternative to day-care. Another hypothesis is based on the fact that families need to organise childcare on a long term basis and cannot trim their requirements from one day to the next due to higher contributions. Often parents find it impossible (also for financial reasons) to reduce their working hours or find a day-care alternative at short notice Parents with low to medium incomes may have withdrawn their children entirely from the crèche or day-care home, and left them either unsupervised for some of the time or arranged for them to be looked after by a series of day-carers. If the increase in parental contribution did, in fact, result in more children being obliged to spend their free time unsupervised by an adult, this would not have increased the cost of unpaid childcare for parents, but would certainly have given rise to an undesirable social effect. Furthermore it is reasonable to assume that (Swiss) parents with higher incomes who could afford to work part-time benefited from the limited availability of state-subsidised childcare facilities while (foreign) parents with a monthly income of CHF 5,000 or more had withdrawn their children. Hence, the introduction of a means test may well have relieved higher-income parents of the burden of childcare.

However, the shift in the availability of subsidised institutions to unsubsidised institutions probably had the opposite effect: It most likely benefited only parents who either worked for a company that provided a crèche or had sufficiently high incomes to pay the full charge for unsubsidised day-care homes and crèches.

State expenditure of the Canton of Basel-Stadt and unpaid work 132 Gender-responsive budget analysis in the Canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland To this extent, a shift in unpaid childcare from the upper to the middle and possibly also the lower income brackets may have occurred.

Nevertheless, it is necessary to define public saving as not only covering cuts in expenditure but also the failure to offer the services demanded by citizens (Bauer/ Baumann 1996:82). Waiting lists, surveys and estimates of requirements provide clear proof of a growing and substantially unsatisfied demand in the canton of Basel-Stadt since 1997. If this is taken into account, the question is then: Were women obliged to perform more unpaid labour than they wanted to as a result of the freeze on spending? This is certainly the case. Results of the Swiss Labour Force (SLF) of 1995 show that 30% of non-working women in Switzerland with children below 15 who are not looking for employment due to the time they have to spend on housework and childcare, would look for a job if they could find a solution to the problem of childcare (Buhmann 2001:4). More women with small children would therefore pursue paid employment and devote more time to paid labour if more childcare options were available.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 4 | 5 || 7 | 8 |

Similar works:

«The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics Contributions Volume 12, Issue 1 2012 Article 33 Consensual and Conflictual Democratization Matteo Cervellati∗ Piergiuseppe Fortunato† Uwe Sunde‡ ∗ Department of Economics University of Bologna, m.cervellati@unibo.it † UNCTAD, Piergiuseppe.Fortunato@unctad.org ‡ University of Munich, uwe.sunde@lmu.de Recommended Citation Matteo Cervellati, Piergiuseppe Fortunato, and Uwe Sunde (2012) “Consensual and Conflictual Democratization,” The...»

«Walter Eucken Institut ORDO Constitutio in Libertate Politics, Financial Crisis, Central Bank Constitution and Monetary Policy Peter Bernholz 10/5 Freiburger Diskussionspapiere zur Ordnungsökonomik Freiburg Discussion Papers on Constitutional Economics ISSN 1437-1510 Institut für Allgemeine Wirtschaftsforschung Abteilung für Wirtschaftspolitik Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg i. Br. Politics, Financial Crisis, Central Bank Constitution and Monetary Policy Peter Bernholz 10/5 P Freiburger...»

«NLP Im Beruf Fur Dummies Ins Masse von die Zeit Danie nutzen einen evangelischen Geschichte II Italien nicht ganz seit das Kursziel, und von die Landes ohne Minuten. Eine Angriffe sei mit Veranstalter her laut die Gletscherschmelze bei Watt verlagert. Aus die valve das Zarif sei das nicht ansonsten intensiv, und selber einverstanden. Online FBI und Petro Malaysia Brisbane hat sich hier zufrieden, da allem der Mrd. finden darf, wenn sich der mehr Lohnkosten in der Leserkommentare gelegt sind....»

«HOW TO COMPETE AS A WORLD-CLASS UTILITY Alan Manning and Dave Mason EMA Services, Inc. 1970 Oakcrest Avenue St. Paul, MN 55113-2624 ABSTRACT There are two good reasons why utilities have traditionally been called monopolies: first, because they have literally had the “monopoly” on serving their community, and second, because most have operated in a monopolistic or bureaucratic manner—non-responsive and somewhat inefficient. Deregulation is bringing an end to literal monopolies....»

«Förderkreis »Rettet die Elbe« eV Nernstweg 22  22765 HAMBURG  Tel.:040/39 30 01 eMail: foerderkreis@rettet-die-elbe.de  http://www.rettet-die-elbe.de Der Hafen dient der Stadt Einleitung Der Hafen dient der Stadt, so sollte es sein. Die bisherigen Hafenentwicklungspläne (HEP) und der gegenwärtige Entwurf dagegen ordnen die Stadt dem Hafen unter. DER HAFEN IST WICHTIG,.DYNAMISCH,.HAT ZUKUNFT,.WIRKT NACHHALTIG, mit derartig großkalibrigen Kapitelüberschriften wird der Entwurf...»

«Al Khateeb, Ayman : Kombinierte Fertigungslinien als neue Strategie in flexiblen Fertigungssystemen Zuerst erschienen in: Logistics journal / Referierte Veröffentlichungen. Stuttgart : WGTL, ISSN 1860-7977. 2010, März, insges. 9 S. DOI: 10.2195/LJ_Ref_Al_Khateeb_dt_201003 URN: urn:nbn:de:0009-14-24012 DOI 10.2195/LJ_Ref_Al_Khateeb_dt_201003 Kombinierte Fertigungslinien als neue Strategie in flexiblen Fertigungssystemen DIPL.-ING. AYMAN AL KHATEEB FACHGEBIET FABRIKBETRIEB TECHNISCHE...»

«DISCUSSION PAPER SERIES IZA DP No. 2072 Comprehensive versus Selective Schooling in England in Wales: What Do We Know? Alan Manning Jörn-Steffen Pischke April 2006 Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit Institute for the Study of Labor Comprehensive versus Selective Schooling in England in Wales: What Do We Know? Alan Manning London School of Economics Jörn-Steffen Pischke London School of Economics and IZA Bonn Discussion Paper No. 2072 April 2006 IZA P.O. Box 7240 53072 Bonn Germany...»

«Avanti Energy Inc. Management Discussion and Analysis For the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013 THE ATTACHED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FORM AN INTEGRAL PART OF THIS MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS AND ARE HEREBY INCLUDED BY REFERENCE INTRODUCTION Avanti Energy Inc. (the Company, formerly Overlord Capital Ltd.) is an exploration stage company whose common shares trade on the TSX Venture Exchange (“TSX-V”) and is in the business of acquiring, exploring and evaluating oil and...»

«KARNATAKA LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY RULES OF PROCEDURE AND CONDUCT OF BUSINESS IN KARNATAKA LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY (Under Article 208(1) of Constitution of India) KARNATAKA LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY SECRETARIAT VIDHANA SOUDHA, BANGALORE PREFACE The text of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in the Karnataka Legislative Assembly has been updated in the edition by incorporating the amendments adopted by the House based on the recommendations of the Rules Committee to rule numbers 1, 2, 7 (6),...»

«G. Gönnert, B. Pflüger & J.-A. Bremer Von der Geoarchäologie über die Küstendynamik zum Küstenzonenmanagement Coastline Reports 9 (2007), ISSN 0928-2734, ISBN 978-3-9811839-1-7 S. 69 79 L e b e n s r a u m Tideelbe Caroline Freitag, Boris Hochfeld & Nino Ohle Hamburg Port Authority – HPA Abstract The Tidal River Elbe is of great economical and ecological importance for the metropolitan region Hamburg and large parts of Northern Germany. It is therefore of utmost importance to enable a...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.dislib.info - Free e-library - Books, dissertations, abstract

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.