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«Der Open-Access-Publikationsserver der ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft The Open Access Publication Server of the ZBW – Leibniz ...»

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BMELV (2006b): Merkblatt für den Zuckerausgleich. www.bmelv.de/cln_044/nn_751434/ SharedDocs/downloads/04-Landwirtschaft/Foerderung/Direktzahlungen/MerkblattZucker,templateId= raw,property=publicationFile.pdf/MerkblattZucker.pdf.

BMELV (2007): Aktualisierte Schätzwerte für die regional einheitlichen Zahlungsansprüche im Rahmen der Betriebsprämienregelung. www.bmelv.de/cln_044/nn_751434/SharedDocs/ downloads/04-Landwirtschaft/Foerderung/Direktzahlungen/AktualisierteSchaetzwerte,templateId =raw,property=publicationFile.pdf/AktualisierteSchaetzwerte.pdf.

BVVG (2007): BVVG privatisierte in 15 Jahren insgesamt die vierfache Fläche des Saar landes. Bodenverwertungs- und -verwaltungs GmbH, April 2008.

www.bvvg.de/Internet/waktuell.nsf/vbroinfo/dPDFPM2_webaktuell/$File/pm2.pdf.

BVVG (2008): Ergebnisse. www.bvvg.de/INTERNET/internet.nsf/vBroInfo/iErgebnisse?Opendocument.

CIFAS Study Report (2006): Review of existing farm advisory tools and farm level indicators, p. 11.

http://cifas.ew.eea.europa.eu/fol099648/CIFAS-FAT-FLI_review-final1.doc/download DEUTSCHES NOTARINSTITUT (DNotI) (2008): Freigrenzen im Grundstücksverkehrsrecht www.dnoti.de/DOC/2002/grundstueckVG-1.doc.

Impact of the introduction of decoupled payments on functioning of the German land market 51 DOLL, H., KLARE, K. (2000): Land price, rents and land profits in Germany – Development and affecting factors. in: TILLACK, P., SCHULZE, E. (eds.): Land ownership, land markets and their influence o the efficiency of agricultural production in Central and Eastern Europe, pp. 190-209.

FOSTNER, B., ISERMEYER, F. (1998): Zwischenergebnisse zur Umstrukturierung der Landwirtschaft in den neuen Ländern, Berichte über Landwirtschaft 76, H.2, pp. 161-190.

HENKEL, G. (1993): Der ländliche Raum. Gegenwart und Wandlungsprozesse in Deutschland seit dem

19. Jahrhundert. Teubner Studienbücher der Geographie. Stuttgart: Teubner.

IFS, Institut für Stadtforschung und Strukturpolitik GmbH (2007): http://www.ifsberlin.de/.

KILIAN, S., SALHOFER, K. (2008): Single Payments of the CAP: Where Do the Rents Go? Agricultural Economics Review, forthcoming.

LANDVOLK NIEDERSACHSEN 2008: LANDVOLKPRESSEDIENST (LPD): Strukturwandel hat sich verlangsamt.

www.landvolk.net/5994.php.

Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt (LFU) 2008: Fachinformation; Beschreibung des Klimas www.lfu.bayern.de/wasser/fachinformationen/klima_beschreibung/index.htm.

LEHMBRUCH, G. (1998): Die Transformationsdynamik der sektoralen Schnittstellen von Staat und Ökonomie in Ostdeutschland (Abschlussbericht), April 2008. www.uni-konstanz.de/FuF/ Verwiss/Lehmbruch/biblio.htm.

NL-BZAR (2007): Konzentration auf EALG-Verkäufe. Neue Landwirtschaft – Briefe zum Agrarrecht.

April 2008. www.agrarrecht.de/download/BzAR_05-2007_178ff.pdf.

NIEDERSÄCHSISCHES MINISTERIUM FÜR UMWELT UND KLIMASCHUTZ 2008): Umweltraum Niedersachsen www.umwelt.niedersachsen.de/master/C23221144_N22890573_L20_D0_I598.html.

REINSBERG, K., STANGE, H. (2005): Der Bodenmarkt in Sachsen, der Tschechischen Republik und Polen. In: EU-Osterweiterung und GAP-Reform, Schriftenreihe des Sächsischen Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft, 3. H., 10. Jg 2005, pp. 47-59. www.landwirtschaft.sachsen.de/lfl/publikationen/ images_pdf/1313_inh.pdf.

RÖDER, N., KILIAN, S. (2008a): Der Markt für Zahlungsansprüche in Deutschland, Berichte über Landwirtschaft, forthcoming.

RÖDER, N., KILIAN, S. (2008b): The Market For Payment Entitlements In Germany. Paper presented at the 82nd Annual Conference of the Agricultural Economics Society: 31.3.-2.4.2008, Cirencester/ UK, p. 18.

SIEGMUND, K. (2007): Boden- und Pachtmarkt noch weitgehend stabil. Sonderheft Neue Landwirtschaft:

2007. pp. 4-9.

SITUATIONSBERICHT, Trends und Fakten zur Landwirtschaft, Deutscher Bauernverband, Berlin, verschiedene Jahrgänge. www.situationsbericht.de.

SMUL (2007): Struktur der Sächsischen Landwirtschaft. Sächsischer Agrarbericht 2006, Sächsisches Staatsministerium für Umwelt und Landwirtschaft, April 2008. www.smul.sachsen.de/bildung/ download/Agrarbericht2006_Web.pdf.

SMUL SACHSEN (2005): EU-Osterweiterung und GAP-Reform, Schriftenreihe der Sächsischen Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft, H. 3.

Sonderheft der Zeitschrift Neue Landwirtschaft: Bodenmarkt (2), 2006/2007.

STATISTISCHES BUNDESAMT 2006.

STATISTISCHES BUNDESAMT a: Fachserie 3, Reihe 3.2.1 Feldfrüchte – Wachstum und Ernte.

STATISTISCHES BUNDESAMT b: Kaufwerte für landwirtschaftliche Grundstücke. Fachserie 3, Reihe 2.4.

several years.

STATISTISCHES BUNDESAMT c: Eigentums- und Pachtverhältnisse Agrarstrukturerhebung 2005.

Fachserie 3, Reihe 2.1.6. several years.

STATISTISCHES BUNDESAMT 2005: Spezial query from agricultural census (Agrarstrukturerhebung).

Lioudmila Möller et al.

STATISTISCHES JAHRBUCH FÜR ERNÄHRUNG LANDWIRTSCHAFT UND FORSTEN (ed.):

Bundesministerium für Ernährung Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz, Landwirtschaftsverlag, Münster-Hiltrup, several years.

STATISTISCHES LANDESAMT SACHSEN: Landwirtschaftliche Betriebe in Sachsen nach Größenklassen der LF (in ha) ab 1991. Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates Sachsen. April 2008.

www.statistik.sachsen.de/21/10_05/10_05_01_tabelle.asp.





ZID (2005): Zentrale InVeKoS Datenbank special query.

Impact of the introduction of decoupled payments on functioning of the German land market 53

APPENDIX

A.1. REGIONAL REPORT BAVARIA

Executive summary The case study region of South East Upper Bavaria has been chosen as a representative area of Southern Germany. One-third of all farms in Germany are located in Bavaria, about 5 % of which is located in the case study region. Based on the natural conditions, a high share of these farms specializes in dairy farming. The livestock density in South East Upper Bavaria is presently an average of 1.44 LU/ha.

The SPS was originally implemented as a dynamic hybrid payment scheme in all of Germany and has since changed to a regional payment scheme. The estimate average value of Bavaria payment entitlements will be €340/ha, just at the average for the rest of the country.

The agricultural land regulations are comparable throughout all of Germany. West Germany typically has a relatively small market for land rent and sales, Bavaria having the lowest market of all federal states. Furthermore, in the study region, both the average land price and the average land rent are high. From 1999 to 2005, the land rent market in the study region was characterized by increasing prices and increasing rent share. The prices in the land sales market have since remained relatively stable.

Policies such as decoupling and rural development have had a relatively small influence on the land market. More important factors to the land rental and sales markets are the levels of the present agricultural commodity prices and the agricultural productivity of the plot.

With decoupling, a share of the livestock payments was redistributed over the grasslands. The remaining livestock payments were added to the payment entitlements to farms which received the payments previous to the decoupling. Payment entitlements in Bavaria for 2007 totalled €150 million; the average face value for whole Bavaria is €334/ha (ZID).

During the last few years, the structural changes in Bavaria have accelerated. However, as per interviews with various experts, decoupling was not a factor in any of these recent changes in South East Upper Bavaria. Furthermore these experts report that there is no observable influence of the SFP on land values until recently.

Lioudmila Möller et al.

A.1.1. Introduction We have chosen a region in the south of the federal state of Bavaria called "South East Upper Bavaria" to serve as a representative region for Southern Germany (see Figure 23).

The utilized agricultural area (UAA) of South East Upper Bavaria in 2003 was 457,457 ha, 39 % of which is arable land and 61 % grassland.

Figure 23: South East Upper Bavaria in the federal state of Bavaria Source: Own illustration.

There are in total 21,374 farms in this region, with an average farm size of 21 ha/farm. This is just under the average farm size for the Federal State of Bavaria, which is 26 ha/farm (ASE, 2003) and Western Germany (34 ha/farm). The average farm size in East Germany is ten times larger than that in South East Upper Bavaria (SITUATIONSBERICHT, 2008). Hence, only 10 % of all farms are larger than 42 ha (see Table 7), with these large farms accounting for 32 % of the agriculturally-used land in this region. The size of these farms fall between 13 ha to 42 ha (49 % of all farms), and account for 55 % of the land in this area. The remaining 41 % of farms are less than 13 ha in size, and account for 13 % of the land (ASE, 2003). The predominant farm type in Bavaria is the individual farm, with only 3 % of all farms (which account for 8 % of the land) being legal entities (BAYERISCHER AGRARBERICHT, 2006). The share of part time farming in the whole of Bavaria is about 55 %. In the region of South East Upper Bavaria, this share increases from about 40 % in the north, to over 60 % in the mountain areas in the south (BAYERISCHER AGRARBERICHT, 2006).

Impact of the introduction of decoupled payments on functioning of the German land market 55

–  –  –

Source: Own illustration, ASE, 2003.

Bavaria is in a transient climate region with a continental climate increasing from northwest to southeast. The rainfall varies from approximately 500 mm per year in the north of Bavaria to 2000 mm per year in the mountain area in the south. In the north of the case study region, there is about 850 mm of rainfall per year. In the mountain regions, the rainfall adds up to nearly Lioudmila Möller et al.

2000 mm per year due to the relief rainfall of the Alps. The average annual temperature is regional, ranging from 6°C to 10°C (LFU, 2008).

These natural conditions lead to a high share of farms specializing in cattle, especially dairy farming. In 2004, more than 27 % of milk production in Germany was produced in Bavaria (BAYERISCHER AGRARBERICHT, 2006). There is a high density of milk production in the central areas of South East Upper Bavaria, with up to 8 t milk quota/ha UAA (see Figure 25).

Figure 25: Milk quota in dairy farms in South East Upper Bavaria

–  –  –

A.1.2. Implementation of SPS A dynamic hybrid payment scheme was introduced within Germany, wherein payment entitlements consist of a regional specific and a farm specific part. The regional specific entitlements are divided into grassland and arable land entitlements. However, it is possible to establish a grassland entitlement with a hectare of arable land and vice versa. In Bavaria, grassland payment entitlements are valued at €89/ha and arable payment entitlements at €299/ha. The farm specific payment is added to these values, thus, the value of payment entitlements differs, depending on the production and structure of the individual farms. These differences should be reduced gradually starting from 2010 until 2013. In 2013, the payment for each hectare should be the same. Another characteristic of the German decoupling model is the differentiation of the regional payments between the federal states. The actual values of the payments for arable and grassland vary among the federal states, as will the final regional payment in 2013. The final regional payment for 2013 will be calculated based on the total amount of payments and the total number of payment entitlements in the federal states in 2009. It is estimated that in the federal states of Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, payments per hectare will be the highest with €359/ha. In the federal state of Saarland, they will be the lowest with €258/ha. The average value for both Germany and the federal state of Bavaria will be €340/ha (SITUATIONSBERICHT, 2008). For further details concerning the payment scheme can be found in the main report for Germany.



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