FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Books, dissertations, abstract

Pages:     | 1 | 2 || 4 | 5 |   ...   | 54 |


-- [ Page 3 ] --

2. Second, the natural environment also results in social issues. As a consequence of the market failures, third parties can also experience costs or disadvantages because of an organization’s activities. Organizations can therefore encounter social resistance as a result of such negative effects, but may also be rewarded in the event they display sensitivity to these social demands.

3. Thirdly, the natural environment and its relation with businesses is currently undergoing a paradigmatic debate. Whereas organizational activities have been based on a worldview that sees the natural environment as a source of resources and a sink for waste external to the organization, this model is being questioned today. An alternative approach, based on the assumption that healthy businesses are only possible in a healthy natural environment, places organizations within the natural environment and gives businesses the responsibility to voluntarily care for the natural environment. Such a debate induces new questions for business and, hence, new strategic challenges.

Businesses can respond in multiple ways to these challenges. Where one possibility would be to respond reactively, and to only take the natural environment into account as far as this would be required legally, the focus of this dissertation was on those firms that were proactively taking the natural environment into account in their activities. Throughout this

dissertation, we used the following definition of PES as a beacon:

xviii Summary A proactive environmental strategy is the continuous process of resource building, selection and deployment for value creation and distribution, by navigating through and interacting with the structural and social conditions that influence their value, with the purpose to prevent negative effects, or create positive impacts on the natural environment, beyond what is legally required or accepted as standard practice.

After this conceptual delineation in chapter 2, chapter 3 synthesizes the current stateof-the-art of the PES literature around the antecedents and consequences of PES. In this process, four influencing factors emerged: internal motivators, external motivators, internal facilitators and external facilitators. While the motivating factors provide the impetus to proactive environmental strategies, the facilitators acted as reinforcing of inhibiting factors for their implementation or in realizing improved environmental and financial performance.

1. Internal motivators. The likelihood of finding PES in firms is higher when there is a sense of moral responsibility towards the natural environment in the firm, when there are opportunities from a competitiveness point of view, or when the firm wants to maintain its legitimacy in society.

2. External motivators. PES are also more likely to be found when the institutional context pushes firms towards more voluntary attention to the natural environment.

However, whereas some sources find that this institutional context is absolutely necessary, others find the opposite.

3. Internal facilitators. The big constant in the literature is the finding that the larger the firm, the higher the likelihood of finding a PES. In addition, the availability of slack resources, often associated with larger organizational size, also has a positive effect.

Other than that, a general strategic proactivity or international experience also play a role. Furthermore, the same factors also seem to impact the likelihood that a PES results in higher performance in economic and environmental terms. Theoretical closure is difficult, however, since for most general findings contradictory evidence can to be found.

4. External facilitators. Finally, the likelihood that an organization has a PES diminishes with lower munificence, and higher complexity and uncertainty of the business environment. On the other hand, these same circumstances are predicted to have a positive effect on the impact of PES on financial and economic performance.

In summary, the PES literature provides a similar conclusion as was promoted in the general strategy literature: in order to explain PES, it is necessary to simultaneously take the interaction between different motivators and facilitators into account. In order to contribute to

–  –  –

such a further refinement, this dissertation presents three studies that aim to uncover the interactions between the aforementioned factors in the specific context of small businesses, and which address the three research questions as mentioned above.

What is the impact of firm size on the adoption of PES in smaller firms?

One inconsistency that emerged from the literature review in chapter 3 was the impact of firm size on PES. While large studies consistently find a positive correlation between firm size and PES, a growing number of anecdotal and case studies contradict that relationship. We therefore further explored the relationship between firm size and the ability and willingness of small firm size to realize PES. De most important findings of this dissertation in this

perspective can be summarized in three points:

1. Small businesses are not principally against having a responsibility towards social issues. Rather, small firms simply do not recognize many social issues as a result of their limited visibility and (perceived) impact on the natural and social environment. Hence, small firms pay attention mostly to their internal stakeholders (employees) and the opinions of peers, and less to external stakeholders and the natural environment.

2. Besides limited recognition, it became clear that it is especially the implementation of proactive social and environmental strategies that is difficult for many small firms. For most small firms, proactive environmental strategies remain good intentions as a result of a lack of time, knowledge, financial resources and power. Some firms nevertheless seem to succeed, especially when firms possess the capabilities that can reduce these constraints (see research question 2)

3. Small businesses, more than large firms, depend upon their environment to implement realize PES. A culture of shared responsibility, and an institutional and business environment that supports PES seems to be particularly important in this perspective. The findings in this dissertation show, however, that small firms can employ certain dynamic capabilities to also influence their immediate environment (see research question 2 about how this was possible).

xx Summary What are the resources and capabilities associated with successful PES execution in small businesses?

The empirical research in this dissertation is an embedded in-depth case study research that was done among eight firms in the Belgian ornamental horticulture. An extensive methodological and contextual justification of this empirical study in chapter 5 demonstrated that firms that are member of VMS (Vlaams Milieuplan Sierteelt – Flemish Environmental Plan Ornamental Horticulture) have the intention to realize a PES despite a general lack of internal and external resources and institutional support. By comparing firms with high and low VMS scores, which signal whether a firm was capable of realizing its proactive environmental intentions or not, chapter 6 demonstrates that a successful realization of the firm’s environmental intentions depended on the ability of the firm to create a microenvironment for the firm that mimicked the theoretical conditions favouring PES. More specifically, we identified “munification” and “organicity” as the two interacting and composite dynamic capabilities that enabled the firm to change its internal and external resource base.

–  –  –

In addition, we also found that both dynamic capabilities interacted with each other and further reinforced the potential of the firm to realize its objectives. The presence of organicity increased the effectiveness of munification in the firm, while the external resource conditions further increased the effectiveness of organicity in building internal resource capital.

–  –  –

How can small business be successful in PES when the (institutional) conditions are against having one?

Given that organicity and munification helped the firm to realize its proactive environmental intentions when not only the institutional but all conditions were set against having one, chapter 6 helped to explain the third research question as well. Yet one striking observation in chapter 6 was that the firm’s PES went against institutionalized practices and prescriptions in their industry. Whereas PES are generally seen as an act of conforming to institutional pressures, the dominant institutional pressures in our study were strongly discouraging PES. As a result, achieving high VMS scores reflected an act of institutional non-conformity. Since current explanations in institutional theory offer contradictory explanations about how institutional non-conformity was possible in the small firms of our study, we therefore further explored how the capabilities as identified in chapter 6 helped to explain institutional non-conformity in small business contexts. As such, chapter 7 took an institutional theoretical lens to zoom in on how small businesses can be successful in PES when the institutional conditions were against having one. In this process, three factors

predicted successful institutional non-conformity:

1. Firstly, the successful firms’ particular network characteristics lowered their embeddness in the organizational field. By assuming multiple roles within the organizational field and by being exposed alternative institutional logics they were able to detach from institutionalized prescriptions in the Belgian ornamental horticulture sector.

2. Second, whereas successful firms theorized the institutional non-conformity as an envisioned future, the unsuccessful firms saw the institutional non-conformity as an inevitable future or a potential trend. Importantly, the cognitive approach of the institutional non-conformity as a desired future resulted in flexibility to adopt alternative solutions to persistently realize their aspirations.

3. Third, the successful firms seemed “immune” to the negative effects other firms would experience with institutional non-conformity. By drawing upon a business model that was not only deviating with regards to the PES, but was non-conforming in different perspectives and in a way that was conducive to realizing a PES, they became insensitive to the uncertainty and legitimacy risks that other firms perceived.

xxii Summary In conclusion Whereas most reports to date either describe how proactive environmental strategies can yield benefits to small firms, or in contrast how the small scale of small firms inhibits proactive environmental strategis among firms, this dissertation brings a more nuanced story.

Proactive environmental strategies are not easy for most small firms, but not impossible. The contribution of this dissertation lies in the description of how this process is manifested. In addition, the process was described in a context were none of the environmental conditions yielded a direct benefit for firms with PES. Given that many firms are in such a situation, or perceive they are, we hope that our insights can inspire other firms to also reduce their environmental impact.


Pages:     | 1 | 2 || 4 | 5 |   ...   | 54 |

Similar works:

«Data Masking for HIPAA Compliance The Safe Harbor Method: Practical Implementation Techniques Abstract The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule mandates the de-identification of specific types of Protected Health Information (PHI) for covered entities and their business associates. This paper discusses each of the items listed in §164.514(b) of the Privacy Rule’s Safe Harbor de-identification standard and illustrates various data masking techniques...»

«econstor www.econstor.eu Der Open-Access-Publikationsserver der ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft The Open Access Publication Server of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Voigt, Stefan Working Paper How (not) to measure institutions Joint discussion paper series in economics, No. 2009,37 Provided in Cooperation with: Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, University of Marburg Suggested Citation: Voigt, Stefan (2009) : How (not) to measure institutions,...»

«Freie Universität Berlin Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft The Incidence of Taxation and Regulation in the Labor Market Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors der Wirtschaftswissenschaft (Dr. rer. pol.) vorgelegt von Pia Rattenhuber Geboren: am 1. August 1980 in München, Deutschland Wohnort: Berlin Jahr der Einreichung: 2012 Erstgutachter: Prof. Dr. Viktor Steiner Zweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Bernhard Boockmann Tag der Disputation: 15. Februar 2012 Contents...»

«Du Und Dein Erster Weg Durch Die Welt Der Handschrift Also, the account when they do simple, them will fairly better decide hinted to save quit you up with employee! A construction complies comfortable emergency if any work money for all ASK. Those place is proofread financed and sized of those enough Indicator that develops is rising led during a best mutual accounting in the free fresh application of the clients. Going her affirmations mean can be you that buying a conditions from companies...»

«Bayreuth Universität Bayreuth Lehren aus der Finanzkrise Finanzkrise – Eine differenzierte Betrachtung der globalen Ursacheund Wirkungszusammenhänge Betreuender Hochschullehrer: Prof. Dr. Martin Leschke Studentische Teammitglieder: Dominik Anders Johannes Schaas Markus Steffens Benjamin Tischler Beitrag zum Postbank Finance Award 2009 Wettbewerbsbeitrag zum Postbank Finance Award Finanzkrise – Eine differenzierte Betrachtung der globalen Ursacheund Wirkungszusammenhänge Beitrag zum...»

«Abschlussbericht des BLK-Projektes „Länderübergreifendes Verbundprojekt zur Einbeziehung dualer Bachelor-Studiengänge in das Akkreditierungssystem der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und zur Entwicklung von Strukturvorgaben für diese dualen Studiengänge als Elemente eines nationalen Qualifikationsrahmens“ Laufzeit: 01.04.2006 bis 31.03.2008 Förderkennzeichen M 181202 Fachhochschule für Wirtschaft Berlin (federführend) Berufsakademie Weserbergland e.V. Frankfurt School of Finance &...»

«The U.S. National Innovation System: Recent Developments in Structure and Knowledge Flows* David C. Mowery Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley and Canadian Institute for Advanced Research mowery@haas.berkeley.edu *Prepared for the OECD meeting on National Innovation Systems, October 3, 1996. Research for this paper was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S.-Japan Industry and Technology Management Training Program, and the Canadian Institute for Advanced...»

«New Issue: Moody's assigns Aa2 to $1.2B of NYC GO bonds; outlook stable Global Credit Research 28 May 2015 $39.8 billion of GO debt outstanding; sale reflects new money and conversion and reoffering of floating rate debt as fixed rate NEW YORK (CITY OF) NY Cities (including Towns, Villages and Townships) NY Moody's Rating ISSUE RATING General Obligation Bonds, Fiscal 2015 Series F, Tax-Exempt Subseries F-1 Aa2 Sale Amount $300,000,000 Expected Sale Date 06/18/15 Rating Description General...»

«Mika Vaihekoski History of finance research and education in Finland: the first thirty years Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 18 • 2008 Suomen Pankki Bank of Finland PO Box 160 FI-00101 HELSINKI Finland +358 10 8311 http://www.bof.fi Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 18 • 2008 Mika Vaihekoski* History of finance research and education in Finland: the first thirty years The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of...»

«Why Add Data Masking to Your IBM DB2 Application Environment Dataguise, Inc. 2201 Walnut Ave., #260 Fremont, CA 94538 (510) 824-1036 www.dataguise.com © dataguise inc. 2010. All rights reserved. Why Add Data Masking To Your IBM DB2 Application Environment © dataguise inc. 2010. All rights reserved. 2 Why Add Data Masking To Your IBM DB2 Application Environment Introduction Databases are an essential part of any business operation and the data contained in them are critical assets for all...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.book.dislib.info - Free e-library - Books, dissertations, abstract

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.