«Dissertation Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doctor rerum agriculturarum (Dr. rer. agr) eingereicht an der Landwirtschaftlich-Gärtnerischen ...»
The term Rabi means spring, and the season is from October to February kept the tube well in his custody, and was not willing to share water with other shareholders or particularly one whom I investigated. This loss of water causes salinity or sometimes sodicity. Similarly, some farmers report that, eventually, they will face serious issues such as crops on being set on fire by an opposing actor or group of actors, and that this crop burning has bad effects on the fertility of the soil.
4.10 Model Explanation
For an empirical analysis and find the relations between land distribution and land degradation, I used SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) to estimate the Ordinary Least Square regression model (OLS). Land degradation (LD) is explained as a dependent variable, and intergenerational land distribution conflicts (Cdis) and land-use change conflicts (Cuse) are all interpreted as independent variables.
In the first step, I used two independent dummy variables, land distribution among heirs and land transfer, to test the hypothesis that intergenerational land distribution can cause land degradation, as mathematically explained in Equation 4.1.
LD = f ( L dis, L T ) 4.1
Where ‘Ldis’ is the land distribution among heirs and ‘LT’ denotes the land transfer. Values of these variables are the direct answers of the questions explained in Subsection 4.3.2. In the next step, the effect of land distribution was merged with the effect of conflicts occurring because of land distribution in order to find the joint effect all these three variables on land degradation (Equation 4.2). The variable of ‘land distribution conflicts’ (Cdis) was also confirmed from the previous two variables of land distribution and land transfer, as conflicts in the case of non-distribution, conflicts raised as oral transfer, and as a result of complete possession.
For the attestation of the second hypothesis that land degradation is caused by intergenerational land distribution and land-use change, the relationship of two different responses for land-use change (whether landowners were in favor of change or not) with land degradation was found by means of Equation 4.3.
Here ‘Cuse1’ and ‘Cuse2’ are the response to land use change of the landowners from the same house respectively as explained earlier in Subsections 4.5.1 and 4.5.2. These are also qualitative variables with two possible options of may or may not change the use of land. To check the effectiveness of the different land-use options, some more linear equations, e.g.
equation 4.4, were estimated.
LD = f ( X i ) 4.4
After finding the relationship between land-use options and land degradation, percentage response in land degradation with respect to the change in numbers of land users for one particular option was measured as the effectiveness of land use change. To check which option has the strongest effect for land degradation, the effectiveness was calculated through the Equation 4.5.
degraded land in Acer before going for this land-use change, ‘ β X i ’ is the rate of change of land degradation with respect to change in the value of Xi. Finally the effect of conflicts, occurring because of land distribution and land-use change, on land degradation was estimated through Equation 4.6, for the confirmation of the second preposition of the study, as inappropriate land distribution and improper decisions for land-use will cause land degradation.
Here ‘CLUC’ is the conflicts based on land use change.
4.11 Summary This chapter has briefly presented the research strategy and case study design and explained the ways of linking the theories to our findings. Three regions were selected for an in-depth study and for the analysis of property rights and land degradation, and through stratified sampling, twenty villages were selected. This selection was dependent on the soil condition of the villages. The units of analysis (households) were chosen randomly following group discussion with the villagers.
The case study method was followed for the analysis of the problem. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews from the actors (landowners, patwaries, registrars, and lawyers) and were confirmed by various techniques, e.g., personal observations, document studies, and photographs. Some other actors such as real estate builders and industrialist were also investigated informally for the authenticity of the data.
The ordinary least square method was used for the estimation of results, from the collected data, to establish the hypotheses. Different relationships between land distribution conflicts were employed for the confirmation of results. Similarly, for the analysis of effects of landuse change, the efficiency of all available options for land degradation was utilized as an additional step, together with the estimation of the relationship between conflicts (as a reason of land distribution and land-use change conflicts) and land degradation.
5 Empirical Setting - Land Administration and Legislations with Local Governance Structure
5.1 Introduction The land administration system and land reforms in the Subcontinent Indo-Pak24 are very old and were introduced in the sixteenth century in the era of Muslim emperor Sher Shah Suri.
These were extensive and administrative agrarian restructuring foundations that continued to be helpful for the following rulers for three hundred years (Hamdani 2001: 1, Ali and Nasir 2010: 4). Sher Shah Suri introduced revenue policies, which were equally supportive of government and common landowners, as these were widely used for the alleviation of poverty and the redistribution of land among poor and landless people. These reforms also avoided corruption of the relevant officers, by transferring them in their respective areas of jurisdiction, every two or three years.
In the reign of the Mughal emperor, Sultan Akber, one of his advisers, Toder Mul, suggested the levying of an agriculture tax and regularized the land record management system for the collection of such revenue from the landowners (Ali and Nasir 2010: 4). For this reason, a comprehensive plan of land assessment was prepared, and land was grouped into four different categories according to their fertility. The ratio of tax was fixed, being one third of the gross produce of the landowner; this was the share of king (Salim 2008: 1).
After the end of Mughal Empire, administrative control in the Subcontinent Indo-Pak was taken over by the British colonial power (East India Company). They implemented a scientific system based on their own pattern, which was very costly and complicated. For land management and record keeping, they conducted a large-scale cadastral survey, and the revenue ratio was now settled in cash, instead of in kind, after the fertility survey of each village. A special administrative hierarchy was established for the collection and monitoring of the revenue process and the local governance structure (panchayats) was abolished. The land tenures were based on the concept of private property in land on the English pattern, allowing sales and mortgages of lands to the money-lenders (Raza et al. 2005: 1, Salim 2008: 8). The British government introduced a proper cadastral system through the land registration act, and Before independence, Pakistan and India were the parts of combined region of Subcontinent Indo-Pak.
similarly systemized the transfer of property from one owner to another through the Transfer of Property Act.
Pakistan inherited the same pattern of the land tenure system, and to improve land management, various land reforms and amendments in these laws were introduced in the diverse time periods. In this chapter, the different legislations implemented in Pakistan related to the study, and the land reforms are discussed. In Section 5.2, the Transfer of Property Act is presented, and then in the next Section 5.3, the Land Registration Act is explained with its necessary amendments. Section 5.4 elucidates the Punjab Land Revenue Act with a further explanation of local governance structure in Punjab, and then a short explanation of the Stamp Act 1882 and Land Acquisition act is given in Sections 5.5 and 5.6, respectively. Finally, the most important inheritance law implemented in Pakistan is explained in Section 5.6. After this, the whole legislation structure and related land reforms of Pakistan are presented in Section 5.7. A brief summary of the whole chapter is provided in Section 5.8.
5.2 The Transfer of Property Act, 1882
This law is related to the record of usufructuary rights, sales rights, and transfer rights against property, whether moveable or immovable. Immoveable property means all things attached to the earth including land buildings, hereditary allowances, fisheries, rights to ways, or benefits that arise from the land, but standing timber, growing crops, grass, fruits on the trees, and machinery are excluded from the record, as these are included in moveable property such as cash, saving certificates, insurance, and jewelry. This law was implemented on 1st of July, 1882 and was amended three times before the independence of Pakistan and four times postindependence. These amendments explain the situations for both agricultural and nonagricultural land. Most of the land in Sindh and Punjab is agricultural land, and so amendments suggested by these two provinces are related to agricultural land.
Transfer of property means that anyone who is the owner of any property can transfer it to some other living persons, companies, or any organization. During the process of the transfer of property, the following conditions have to be fulfilled.
1. There must be free land (free from any litigation25, any possession of other parties) A contest authorized by law, in a court of justice, for the purpose of enforcing a right.
2. The man or organization to whom this property is going to be transferred must be mature (adult) and not having an unsound mind.
3. Finally, the owner of the property presents a sale deed on judicial paper (stamp paper) before a sub-registrar26 after a statement of the owner, such as a property will be transferred to the purchaser.
According to the law, a person can transfer his property to one or more living persons in the present or in the future, but the chance of an heir-apparent succeeding to an estate, the chance for relation obtaining a legacy on the death of a kinsman, or any other mere possibility of a like nature, cannot be transferred. Similarly, in the case for a breach of a condition subsequently, property cannot be transferred to anyone except the owner of the property.
Property of any kind may be transferred, except state land, which can be allotted to farmers for cultivation or are granted to them on lease. In the case of restricted property, where the owner has some specific rights, these rights cannot be personally transferred to himself.
The operation of transfer of land deals with the easements, rents, and profit after the transfer, and all things attached to the earth (in the case of trees, all things rooted in the earth, and in the case of buildings, embedded in the earth) are transferred to the new owner.
Similarly, in case of machinery, moveable parts belong to the old owner, and immovable parts are the share of the new owner. Sometimes, the owners come to an understanding, e.g., in the case of tube wells on land, when a landowner transfers the land to the next owner, the new owner pays for the amount of moveable machinery, if he wants to keep the tube well in his own custody; eventually, both make an agreement for the water use and electricity charges and can use this well collectively. This depends on the contract of transfer.
The transfer of the property act allows oral transfer, and written expression is not required by law. Most people do not receive their cadastral document at the time of intergenerational land transfer and avail themselves of the facility of oral transfer to avoid a long legal process.