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«Dissertation Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doctor rerum agriculturarum (Dr. rer. agr) eingereicht an der Landwirtschaftlich-Gärtnerischen ...»

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8. Land-use change

9. Land-use change conflicts Source: Own Presentation The place in which interviews were to be conducted was chosen by the interviewees. Mostly, it was a guest room at their workplace and within a friendly environment to allow the interviewees to feel that they were not forced to relate anything that they wished to keep private. Briefly, I told them about my requirements with regard to their ownership rights and land-use rights, and then they were free to tell anything that they wanted. If the respondent was not willing to reply to a question, I skipped over that question. I tried to probe them in a very friendly way, and if I felt that they were not willing, I did not force them to answer.

Figure 4.1: One Respondent in the Village Nowykay during His Lunch Break 4.

5.3 Interviews with Experts In case of experts, my target interviewees were local and district level officials related to land distribution and the land registration department, called patwari, and lawyers from the notary public and Registrar. A patwari is the most junior official of the revenue department; he deals at a village level and generally is an employee of grade 5. He is the sole custodian of all the original land records of the particular area, which is composed of two to eight revenue estates (commonly one large village or two to three small villages). He is also responsible for keeping the records of government land in his area. A patwari has authority to keep original records and can make changes relating ownership, use and taxation in these records in case of change (Qazi 2006: 5). For my study, I visited ten patwaries, in three regions (twenty villages), and asked some questions related to my research (Table 4.4).

Table 4.4: Questionnaire for Patwaries

1. Personal information

2. What are land distribution laws implemented in this region?

3. What are your responsibilities in the case of land distribution and land transfer?

4. Generally what kind of problems do you face in the transfer of land?

5. What is your role in the case of the issue of power of attorney?

6. What types of documents do people need from you?

7. What is your role in the case of the sale or purchase of land?

8. What sort of conflicts generally do you find in the region related to land?

9. Do these conflicts also cause land degradation?

10. What policy will help to solve the problem of land degradation in the region?

Source: Own Presentation Similarly, lawyers from the notary public and registrar (sub registrar) are the government officials appointed at the district level as an issuing authority of power of attorneys. Lawyers from the notary public are responsible for the issuing of the special power of attorney16, and the registrar (sub registrar) is responsible for the general power of attorney.17 The registrar (sub registrar) is basically the member of the district revenue office, called the thesildar (naibthesildar) of grade 16 (15) and is the man in charge of the office in one district.18 The main responsibility of thesildar is the collection of land revenue, payable to government, and in order to fulfill his responsibilities, he has to keep his information about land and land records up to date. Because of his responsibilities, he is an assistant collector of class I, and his assistant (naib thesildal) is an officer of class II with similar responsibilities. In the case of Special power of attorney will be explained in detail in Chapter five.

General power of attorney will also be explained in detail in Chapter five.

Administrative unit of district division and will be explain in Chapter five.

general power of attorneys, the government appoints them as a registrar (sub registrar). For my study, I visited three lawyers and three registrars (one lawyer and one registrar in Shaikhupura, and two lawyers and two registrars in Gujranwala), and asked them questions related to my studies (Table 4.5).

Table 4.5: Questionnaire for Lawyers and Registrar

1. Personal information

2. What is your role in the case of the issue of power of attorney?

3. What types of documents, people need for this contract?

4. What are your responsibilities in the case of monitoring this power?

5. Generally what are the reasons for the cancellation of this contract?

6. Do you find some serious conflicts because of the cancellation of these contracts?

7. What sort of conflicts generally do you find in the region related to this issue?

8. How are these resolved?

9. Do these conflicts also cause land degradation?

10. What policy will help to solve the problem of land degradation in the region?

Source: Own Presentation

4.6 Triangulation In case study data collection, the accuracy, validity, and reliability of the data are most important, and for this purpose, Yin (1994: 80) has suggested various sources for the collection of data. This process is known as triangulation, through which collected data can easily be verified by another source (Yin 1994: 92, Stake 1995: 114). For my present study, I have used various techniques for the confirmation of my data and to obtain accurate information.

4.6.1 Personal Observations Personal observation techniques are helpful for individuals to gather first-hand data on the behaviors of the respondents being studied. It is based on a natural and flexible setting, and the personal involvement of a researcher is the major element in these observations (National Science Foundation (NSF) 1993: 52). Normally, there are contradictions in beliefs and in what people report in interviews, and personal observations are the best tools to check against these discrepancies; this is helpful for understanding the multiple diverse perspectives of a community. To attain this objective, a researcher has to approach the respondent, rather to call them into his environment (Family Health International (FHI) 2005: 13).

In this study, I was fully involved in the field survey and gave full attention to every respondent and his actions. During the general meeting, I interacted with all affected household heads. Next day, during individual meetings with selected households, I keenly observed the actions that occurred but kept in mind the many small things related to my research and noted down some things in my dairy. This provided me with an opportunity to collect data on a wide range of behaviors, to capture a great variety of interactions, and to explore the evaluation topic. This approach also allowed me to learn about things that the participants or staff might have been unaware of, or that they were unwilling or unable to discuss in an interview or group discussion. It also provided me with good opportunities for identifying unanticipated outcomes and permitted me to enter and understand the situation.

4.6.2 Document Studies

Another technique of data collection, which is not very common but potentially useful, is document studies; written material and documented records from different organizations and publications can also produce information for the cross-checking of the collected data (Patton 1990: 4). According to Yin (1994: 80), documents are the most reliable source for the validity of data because of repeated reviews and the large time span for the data collection.

For my study, I collected material related to land degradation from the libraries of various research institutes, e.g., the Rice Producing Research Center Kalashahkako, Soil Fertility Research Center Lahore, Soil Research Center Lahore, and Agricultural Research Centers in Lahore, Gujranwala and Islamabad. For further exploration of some issues related to land-use change and city expansion, I visited the city planning office Gujranwala, industrial development office Gujranwala, and housing societies Gujranwala, the Lahore Development Authority (LDA), Ministry of Environmental Protection Lahore, Motor Way Construction Authority Lahore, Motor Way Planning Lahore, and Motor Way Planning Islamabad. These public records helped me to understand the institutional structure and government policies for land use and for environment and agriculture protection. Some information was also gathered by the revenue office, Gujranwala, for the structure of local governance and the present laws of registration for the cross-checking of the information gathered from the respondents. All these documents were easily available and were inexpensive. They were local in setting and in the language in which they occurred and were useful for determining value, interest, political climate, and public attitudes.

4.6.3 Photographs

Photographs are also a very useful tool for data collection, as introduced by Wagner (1979), and many researchers have successfully employed this technique for analysis in the field of social sciences. I have used this technique for the verification of my information. I took various photographs from the different places in the field regions with the permission of the landowners and according to the situation of the event.

4.6.4 Informal Interviews with other Actors

Various techniques were used to collect and to verify the data. The main focus was on the local land owner and farmers, but also some other villagers who were not farmers but essential part of the villages such as Imam Masjid, the women who cook bread for the villagers, shoe makers, etc. were questioned. Similarly, some other actors such as real estate builders and industrialists were also visited and asked about their interest in the area with respect to the sale and land-use change pattern of the region.

4.7 Background of the Region All of three case study regions were selected from the north east area of the province Punjab19, called Retina Doab20 (shown in Figure 4.1). The regions are located in the upper area of the doab shown near Upper Chanab canal.

Punjab is province in Pakistan with the largest Population.

According to Earth Science, the alluvial land between two converging rivers is known as a doab

–  –  –

Figure 4.2: Rechna Doab Benchmark Basin, Pakistan Source: International Water Management Institute (2001) This doab is situated between the two rivers, Ravi and Chanab, and the agricultural point of view is very important because the doab is irrigated by the canal links from these rivers and also from other rivers.

The soil of this doab is very fertile and good for the production of cash crops, for example, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, and rice (Jhangir and Ali 1997: 1). The north east part of this doab, which is geographically located at 31o in North and 73o in east, is very famous for its cultivation of rice, because rice favors a fine soil texture with maximum water retention near the root zone. According to the history of Rechna Doab, this area is considered best for the availability of irrigated water and ground water (ibid: 23).

District Shaikhupura, Gujranwala, and Sialkot are much enriched in the production of the World's best quality rice known as “Basmati”, which has a special aroma, and Pakistan has a monopoly in the International Market because of this aromatic verity of rice (Jhangir and Ali 1997: 23). Jhangir and Ali (1997: 31) and Jhangir et al. (2003: 11) report that the farmers only use ground water for the rice cultivation in the clay soil, because, in this region, the ground water is of good quality and, in the case of the use of irrigated water from the canal, the cost of production increases. The history of Rechna Doab shows that this area has not been properly utilized, as some of the areas have been over-cultivated as mentioned in the study of Jhangir and Ali (1997: 3-31); land was intensively used in the upper Rechena Doab. This use was about eighty one percent in 1960, increased gradually up to the level of ninety three percent in 1990, and again reduced to a level of eighty six percent in 1995. Increase in output level occurred because of the introduction of higher yields and new varieties and additional water supplies. After 1990, a reduction in output was caused by many reasons, for example, a cut in subsidy for fertilizers, a shortage in the labor supply because of poverty and urban migration, and the land degradation because of over-cultivation and mismanagement in the land-use change (Jhangir and Ali 1997: 23, Rehman et al. 1997: 15, International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 2007: 3).

4.8 Selection of Case Studies Sites

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